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Building Construction NWCFD

Basic building construction for dummies
by

Brian DeVader

on 18 December 2012

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Transcript of Building Construction NWCFD

A Guide for Us Regular Folk Building Construction Fire Resistive Construction Type I The same as TypeI, but with NO protection Type II Ordinary construction TYPE III Heavy Timber TYPE IV Wood frame TYPE V TYPE I - Fire Resistive
TYPE II - Noncombustible
TYPE III - Ordinary
TYPE IV - Heavy Timber
TYPE V - Wood Frame Non-Combustible A Type II building has the same structural characteristics as a Type I in that it is non-combustible construction. The major difference is that it is not protected. Type 1 structures are constructed of concrete and protected steel (steel coated with a fire-resistant material, most often a concrete mixture), and are designed to hold fire for an extended amount of time in order to keep the fire at bay in the room and/or floor of origin. Often used in turn-of-the-century construction Also called a brick-and joist structure. It has masonry-bearing walls but the floors, structural framework and roof are made of wood or other combustible material. The major recurring fire spread problem of type III construction is concealed spaces and poke-through holes. These small voids, crevices and openings through which smoke and fire can spread are found behind the partition walls, floors and ceilings. TYPE V construction is the most combustible of the five building types. Identifying
Roof Types A Lost Art 􀂄Shed - This style is essentially half a gable roof. May utilize conventional or lightweight construction. Gambrel Roof (Amityville Horror house) Gable Roof Basic
A-frame
design with the roof
pitched in two opposing planes.
May utilize conventional or lightweight
construction. Covered by shake, tile, rock, composition,
etc. and supported by sheathing or plywood. Pitched Roof with dormers Hip - Similar to the gable roof, but lacks the A-
frame configuration. Two sets of opposing pitches where the roof slopes down to meet every outside wall. May utilize conventional or lightweight construction. Mansard - This roof has a double slope on
each of its four sides. The lower slope is
steeper than the upper slope. Pitched roof with two plans on each side
􀂄Lower plans are steeper than upper plan
􀂄Difficult to ladder, roof ladder usually required
�Lower plan may make up interior wall Butterfly - Honestly, when was the last time you saw a butterfly? Can span large open areas unsupported by pillars or posts, arched roofs are ideal for many types of occupancies. Bowstring Truss A Recipe for Disaster Bowstring truss roofs have concealed spaces that can hide fire. When they become weakened by fire, they create dangerous situation for firefighters working either above or below the roof system. ARCHED ROOFS Abandoned Commercial Structure Back of Structure The bowstring truss roof collapsed at the rear of the 84-year old structure approximately 16 minutes after the initial companies arrived on-scene and within minutes after the Incident Commander reported that the fire was under control. 19 other firefighters were injured in the collapse Purlin - A horizontal member on the structure connecting the arches together Bowstring
Lamella
Purlin Lamella Roof Types Because it is an arch rather than a truss, the roof exerts a horizontal reaction in addition to the vertical reaction on supporting structural components. Gambrel Actually, there are a few in Lawrence. Purlin Type Trussless Arched Roofs Flat - Yep, you guessed it. It's flat. Remember that Parapet wall we talked about? Many firewalls are required to have a parapet, a portion of the wall extending above the roof. The parapet is required to be as fire resistant as the lower wall, and extend a distance prescribed by building code. Now let's practice.... Combustible nature of a wood frame building
Use of smaller structural members to support larger members
Structural collapse
Unlimited potential for fire extension, fire extension to
nearby structures. Type V Hazards: What type of roof is this? What type of roof is this?
What type of construction is this?
What are the types of hazards of this type of construction? What type of roof is this?
What type of construction is this?
What are the types of hazards of this type of construction? What type of roof is this?
What type of construction is this?
What are the types of hazards of this type of construction? What type of roof is this? What type of roof is this?
What type of construction is this?
What are the types of hazards of this type of construction? What type of roof is this?
What type of construction is this?
What are the types of hazards of this type of construction? What type of roof is this?
What type of construction is this?
What are the types of hazards of this type of construction? What type of roof is this?
What type of construction is this?
What are the types of hazards of this type of construction? What type of roof is this?
What type of construction is this?
What are the types of hazards of this type of construction? Welcome to De Soto, Kansas Downtown De Soto is literally falling apart! Fire resistance rating on all exterior and interior load-bearing walls.
May have combustible features, as materials with no fire resistance rating may be used.
Generally have Flat roofs with combustible felt, insulation, and roofing tar. Construction intended to confine fire and it's byproducts to a given location.
Primary fire hazard: contents of structure. Interior members (walls, beams, floors, roof) are made of wood.
Hazards: smoke and fire spread through concealed spaces.
Fire stops are placed to limit fire spread. Interior structural members (beams, columns, arches, floors, etc.) made of solid or laminated wood with no concealed spaces.
Found in warehouses, churches, & old warehouses.
Exterior walls have studs extending continuously from the foundation sill to the top plate near the attic.
Concealed space between these studs leads to smoke, fire, and heat travel. Characteristics of Balloon-frame construction: What type of roof is this?
What type of construction is this?
What are the types of hazards of this type of construction? Questions? Construction Types Deteriorated Trusses How can a skyscraper burn like this? Al Nahda, Sharjah, Dubai
April 28, 2012 Answer: The building is NOT burning. The owner often used plastic sheets to decorate the exterior. The plastic sheets are burning. Fire Effects on Common Construction Materials – Wood • May be used in load bearing and non-load bearing walls.• Reaction of wood to fire conditions is based on the size of the wood and its moisture content.• Water does not have a negative effect on wood’s structural strength.• Plywood, particle board, paneling may be highly combustible, produce toxic gases and rapidly deteriorate under fire conditions. Gable - This roof has a double slope on
two sides and is very common.
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