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Comic Strip Russian Revolution
Transcript of Comic Strip Russian Revolution
WWI The Bolsheviks believed that the proletariats basis of many people was thoughtless. The Russo Japanese war showed how weak the Czar really was. Russia broke an agreement over the split land in Manchuria, and Japan fought back basically defeating Russian forced completely. This showed the people that their rulers were not winning and that is not a good sign for the future of the Country. Tsars of Russia Life under the rule of Tsar Alexander III was brutal and harsh. He took power in 1881, from here on he enforced his ideas in cruel ways. Alexander commanded an autocracy or complete dictatorship, popular for being a king. He also believed in Orthodoxy, extremely religious, and being Russian. If you were neither of the two, and you lived in Russia during this time period, your life would be hell. As a result of not being orthodox or Russian, usually you were deemed as prisoner and sent to Siberia. Another punishment for not fitting the mold would be to be monitored carefully or publicly embarrassed. This happened to Russian Jews all the time, guards would just watch as people looted and burnt their shops down. This rule came to an end November 1st, 1894. Autocracy is complete dictatorship, orthodoxy is an extreme belief in one’s religion, and nationality is extreme patriotism. When Alexander III died, Nicholas II succeeded him. Nicholas believed in many of the same things as his father. The only real differences are that he tries to industrialize. Russia was behind in Industrialization. He raises taxes and sought foreign investments. Trans-Siberian railroad makes him unpopular because of the time and risk. Also, he is deemed unfavorable because he is having all these conflicts elsewhere, an example would be getting involved in WWI and the Russo-Japanese war. Industrialization challenged the Tsar in many ways. His advisers said it was necessary to keep up with the rest of the world. Trans-Siberian Railroad was in turn created. Industrialization was difficult for Russia because they were so far behind. Was not as successful for the Tsar. Secret Revolutionary groups were formed during this time. They began because the Tsar was showing weakness, and the people saw that their 300 year rule is coming to an end. Also the industrialization made people go through bad working conditions and horrible wages. They were banned from creating working unions, and the discontent made people want change. The king was not helpful and they wanted him gone. Two main groups formed during this period of time. Both proletariat groups were created as the Mensheviks and the Bolsheviks. The Bolsheviks were proletariats that became their own small group of more radical revolutionaries. Their leader was Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov, later known as Lenin. On January 22, 1905 families went to the winter palace to petition for better working conditions, more personal freedom, and an elected national legislature. Without any motive, the guards shot at the people peacefully petitioning. Over 1,000 were wounded, and several hundred were killed. Because of the shootings the Czar made a Duma (parliament). He didn’t want to share the power, so the Duma was shut down. The last straw was Russia’s entrance into WWI. The people were not ready for a war; they certainly did not want to fight. Russia wasn’t ready for the war, the economic issues just kept piling up, and last but not least they let a “holy man” named Rasputin basically run the government. Many Russians just deserted their positions in the middle of the war because they saw it as something not worth the effort. The March Revolution made the Tsar step down from power. March of 1917, women workers led a citywide strike in Petrograd. Guards were ordered to shoot them, but later sided with the women. They shouted things about the Tsar being taken down and the war be deserted. They were voicing the opinions from people all around Russia. Nicholas then proceeded to abdicate the throne. The provisional government was being led by Alexander Kerensky and it was basically a temporary government. The Soviets were more liked; they were town council men, people of high authority in towns. The provisional government made the decision to stay in the war, lost people support. Soviets came closer to power. March Revolution
"Down with Autocracy, Down with the Tsar" Bolshevik Revolution – Lenin and All Power to the Soviets and Peace, Land and Bread The Petrograd soviet and other soviets in major cities in Russia, were controlled over the power of Lenin and the Bolsheviks. Lenin was able to gain appeal to his beliefs with his slogan, “Peace, Land, and Bread.” An armed group of factory workers stormed the palace in Petrograd in November 1917 without warning. These Bolsheviks named themselves the Red Guards, and what they accomplished was seizing government offices and provisional governments. The revolution put Kerensky into power, while the revolution was figuring out what to do next. However he soon fled because he was afraid of what Lenin would have done to him. The Red Guards storming the palace was a step forward, however Lenin was not there to witness it. Lenin gave many orders after the takeover, executed by the Bolsheviks. He ordered all the farmland to be dispersed among the peasants. Lenin ordered the factories, to be put under the control of the workers. This showed his want to provide for the poor, rather than the rich. In March 1918, the Bolshevik government signed a truce: to begin peace conversations, and halt all fighting with Germany. This truce was called the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, where Germany and Russia’s allies gained a large part of Russian surrendered land. Among the Russians, extensive anger was created because of the humiliating terms of this treaty. This embarrassing treaty, cause people to be resistant to the policies of the Bolsheviks and objected the murder of the royal family. Civil War – Stamping out the enemies of the Bolsheviks After the Treaty of Brest Litovsk, the Bolsheviks created many enemies for them-selves. All the different groups of opponents formed the White Army; it was composed of groups that supported the return to the rule of the czar, groups that wanted a democratic government, and ironically, there were socialists that opposed the style of Lenin’s socialism. The one reason these groups united to create the White Army was their desire to defeat the Bolsheviks. However, with all the differences within the White Army, it separated into three groups, all battling the Red Army of the Bolsheviks. With this entire situation occurring, Leon Trotsky—revolutionary leader— expertly led the Bolshevik army. During the civil war in Russia between the Bolshevik Red Army and the White Army, some Western nations aided the White Army of Russia. One of the Western nations was the United States, however the help provided to the White Army was very ineffective and unsuccessful. This revolution proved to be the most deadly out of previous ones in Russia. In this three-year struggle and famine, nearly 14 million people in Russia died. Russia was left in chaos from the destruction that was created from the horrendous fighting, hunger and the worldwide flu epidemic. Finally, the Red Army came out victorious showing that the Bolsheviks were able to seize power and sustain it as well. Lenin Restores Order –
Recovering from the war Lenin had a big task at hand trying to resolve the conflicts in Russia. The Russian economy was ruined because of the war and the revolution, and trade was at a standstill. Many workers had to flee to other countries because of how bad the economy was in Russia. Reconstructing the economy and government was Lenin’s plan to restore order in Russia. Lenin had plans for creating a state-controlled government economy, however he temporarily put that aside and rather enforces a smaller scaled version of capitalism named the New Economic Policy (NEP). The NEP permitted the excess crops of the peasants to be sold, instead of being forced to hand it over to the government. Although the government had much control over major industries, banks, and ways of communication, it allowed small factories, businesses, and farms to work under private ownership. Foreign investments were also greatly encouraged by the government. The country steadily healed after these new policies were put into play. Russia’s farms and factories were well of by 1928, creating as much as they had prior to World War I. After the recovery of Russia’s economy, the Bolsheviks were worried of that nationalism would arise as a threat to unity and party loyalty. After Lenin realized what potential threats could happen, he organized a central government that would control several Russian governing republics. In respect to the councils that helped create the Bolshevik revolution, in 1922, the country was named the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR). There are many different sides to the question, did Lenin's plans work? You could say his approach was well worth it and in the long run completely affected Russia in a positive way, or you could have the opposite opinion. Lenin, in his time as a leader, made some harrowing decisions. His plans did not completely work out the way he intended. An example would be the Lenin gave birth to concentration camps, declared a hunt against the Russian intelligentsia and clergy and laid the grounds for a totalitarian state. He started off with somewhat of a socialist policy, helping people earn back farm land and factories they rightly deserved. Some of his policies worked too, an example would be the NEP, and winning the civil war. Its split down the middle really. Present day! Russia is the bomb.com example of a nationalistic poster