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Transcript of Global Prezi
hy is mainly the study of particular
places on the surface of the earth. Resources
is also apart of geography. For example,
like the natural resources that many
people use today. Like, rocks, rivers and
mountains. There's many geographies today
that we probably haven't seen yet. And the Forest The Nile river is located in Africa.
There was also this famous quote that stated,
"Egypt is the gift of the Nile" by Herodotus.
I definitely agree with this quote because the Nile is a very striking river. But the tragic thing was that there was about 2 floods a year, which caused great damage. This encouraged trade communication political unity and required adaptations. If they didn't take any precautions then they will be at great risk. Also around 40 million people live around the Nile River isn't that insane?! It dominates Egypt world and thought. Meaning, that the river was very important to the citizens of Egypt. It is also believed to be one of the longest rivers in the world because it is about 6650 kilometers (4132 miles). It is also surrounded by desert and with occasional oasis. People love the river because it makes them feel warm and safe. They use this river as a defense from invasion. The Chinese river (the yellow river) is the second longest river in China. It originates in Tibet and it gets 45% of it's water from glaciers and vast underground springs of the Tibet plateau. This river is really muggy and slow. In other words, it is know as the worlds muddiest river. It gets its name and color from the yellow silt it picks up in the Shaanxi Loess Plateau. It is filled with sediment, therefore the whole entire river is yellow. Unfortunately, this river has it's own downside towards it. Because of it's floods, it's known as the worlds most dangerous and destructive river. It has produced 1,500 floods that killed millions of people. The cause is that there are large amounts of silt generated by soil erosion. In 132 B.C. there was floods that occurred in 16 districts which affected many peasants. Also what impressed me the most is that each year 1.5 billion of soil flows into the Yellow River. Sometimes, there is so much sediment in the river it looks like chocolate milk! That is one unbelievable fact. The Indus River is a major river in Asia which flows through Pakistan. The river supplies 80% of Pakistan's irrigated land. The moonson seasons also determine how people used their resources. For example, it's the most important supplier of water resources to the Punjab and Sindh plains it forms the backbone of agriculture and food production in Pakistan. Some Geographies that are part
of our world today is: The Ocean Mountains Sumeria Sumeria is a very interesting topic to read about. They believed in multiple gods. They believed that a great domed roof contained the sky, the stars, the moon and the sun which lighted the cities beneath it. They also believed that below the earth swirled the dim netherworld, a fearsome abode of demons and the kingdom of the dead. Enlil; the god of the clouds was one of the most powerful god there ever was.This is very intriguing and sounds a little bit crazy at the same time, but definitely something to read on further about. They also used cuneiform in their writing. It was a form of writing that was used in the middle east. Cuneiform was employed for writing a number of languages from about the end of the 4th millennium BC until about the 1st century BC. It is also from a latin meaning "wedge-shaped". The expansion of cuneiform writing outside Mesopotamia began during the 3rd millennium BC, when the country of Elam, in what is now southwestern Iran, adopted the system. If you would've seen cuneiform today, you would not understand a thing. It was basically the sumerians way of communicating. For instance, they were symbols that the sumerians used to write and talk to each other, this was really helpful back then. The Sumerian Wheel Cuneiform Egypt The Egyptians built the pyramids because they believed in the afterlife. They put the bodies in the tomb because they wanted to protect them, the pyramids also made a really good burial tomb. Their religion was omnipresence. Meaning, that there was a lot of gods. Also they were polytheistic (believed in many gods). Their interaction with the natural environment shows interrelated gods and goddesses yearly rebirth of Nile and daily rebirth of sun. They had over 2000 gods! The Pharaoh was one of those gods that they had a part in their life. Osiris was one of the most important god in Egypt. She was the god of the dead (a little scary). This created an evolution in Egyptian mythology. Horus was also the god of balance and harmony. He sounded very rightful. He maintained the natural flow of the Nile and fertility of the soil. These gods show that they did have multiple of gods in Egypt, it showed their diversity and characteristics. The Pharaoh's were supposedly the direct descendant of the sun god. Through July to September, (during floods) life is controlled by them. Their language was also apart of their daily lives. Their language was called hieroglyphics. It was written without vowels and they either used them in temples or Rosetta Stone. The last thing that the Egyptians created were mummies! Of course, they never came back to life as the living dead like you see on television but they do look the same as they do on movies. At first they wash their bodies and purify them. After, they have to take their organs away. They have to cut a slit through their bodies to take off all of their organs. They did this so bacteria wouldn't grow inside the bodies when they're decaying. The organs were then put in a jar so that the organs could be protected. mummies The egyptians were classified. The supreme ruler of Egypt was at the top of the pyramid while the farmers and laborers were at the bottom of the pyramid. They lived life the hardest because they did not have much money nor were did they have a lot of power. They lived in mud huts and worked in fields all day. The artisans were right up from the farmers and they were allowed to decorate their homes. If they were really skilled, then they would get paid more. They provided people with clothing, furniture exc.. Then the viziers and high priests were about in the same class. They were right below the pharaoh. They had many servants and entertained guests with feasts. While the Pharaoh was the top of the pyramid, they had the most power. They lived in a luxury palace and they lived a life of comfort and luxury, something that not everyone had. China Confucianism, Daoism and Legalism was a big part in china's society. Confucius lived from 551-479 B.C.E. He was the founder of confucianism. His teachings were that they should have a just and peaceful society. He thought that society would be better when people acted properly (based on their roles). It had a very practical on the government. Daoism was founded by Loazi which he lived in the late 500s B.C.E. It was based on the ancient chinese idea about teaching people about nature. It encourages rulers to rule less harshly. The most important influence was on writing, thought and art. Then it was legalism. Legalism was founded by Hanfeizi who lived from 280-233 B.C.E. He was also prince of the royal family. This was very impressive back then. He thought that people were naturally selfish. They could not be relied to have a good influence on the world. He strictly believed this because of people's actions, he thought that they should be consistent of the things they do and say. Unit 3 *Sparta and Athens* Sparta's government was all about training for war, it was a really overwhelming place to live. They also turned people into outright slaves whom they called heluts. This was really a tough place for people to live in because all of their life they had to deal with all of their families going to war, that's all they thought about. For education, the males had to take part in the army, they had no choice. They were obligated to. “Come back with your shield, or on it. Written by Queen Gorgo. This portrays that they were really strict when it came to fighting wars. They want to die fighting, and if they don't, their deaths will mean nothing. The education for woman was completely different. They mostly had to take gymnastics training. Their education were physical not mental (weird, I know). Women weren't required to take military training but they did have to be educated. If there was any infant girls, they would be exposed to die if they seemed weak. This is so inhumane. It's sad to hear that women were killed just because of their lack of power. The men also had to start at an early age to prepare to war. The young boys went to live in barracks with older boys and men from ages 7-60 were expected to join spartan army. Then the Athens were a different part of history. Their government experimented with monarchies, dictatorships, aristocracy, tyrannies, oligarchies and democracies. They remained with two kings and an oligarchy. Unlike the people in Sparta, the people in Athens were educated to act and think as free people. They were always eager to learn new ideas. They valued education and arts as well. They build temples and city states which helped them live a better life. The sad thing is that men were educated while woman were basically slaves. They had to focus their attention on their child all the time even if they were exhausted. They had to weave the clothing, prepare meals, manage their household. Practically nothing? Yea right. They also had no part in government! They had to teach their 6-7 year old boys were taught by their mothers at home. But the men also had to take part in military. The only good thing is that they had to be 18 to join the military. They have to take military school for two more years and by 20 they were graduated! Roman Republic Republic: a form of government in which power rests with citizens who have the right to vote for their leaders. Ancient Greece City State: A city with it's own laws, rules, and money. They act like their own mini country. Rome was founded in 753 B.C. by Romulus and Remus, twin sons of the god mars and a Latin princess. Rome was also built on seven rolling hills at a curve on the Tiber river, near the center of the Halian peninsula. The last king of Rome was Tarquin the proud. A harsh tyrant, he was driven from power in 509 B.C. Different groups struggled from power which was the plebeians and the Patricians. They inherited their power but it was limited. Rome also spread its powers. Roman merchants moved by land and sea. They traded Roman wine and olive oil for a variety of foods, raw materials and manufactured goods from other lands. The gladiators were also apart of the roman culture. They highly entertained the Romans. The gladiators were condemned criminals, prisoners of war or either slaves. Basically, these people weren't really that innocent. Sometimes they were either professional gladiators who were free men who volunteered to participate in the games. They could earn their freedom back if they survived, it was about 5 years of combat that they had to do. These men were insane! They were putting their lives on the line just so they could be well known and famous! These gladiators trained hard! They trained like professional athletes. Their training included how to use various weapons, war chain, trident, a dagger and a lasso. The best thing about their fighting is that they were allowed to fight in armor and with the weapons that best suited them. These fights were deadly! There was people watching them, either cheering them on or booing them. Each time they won they were paid. Also when an opponent felt he was defeated, he would raise his left hand with one finger extended as a request for mercy. They would fight each other harshly, so if one person wants to give up then that would mean the end of him. They usually fought in large arenas, the most famous that they ever used was the Colosseum in Rome. Now I am sure you're wondering what the winner would achieve. The winner would receive a symbol of their victory, such as a golden bowl, crown or gold coin, along with a palm leaf symbolizing victory. Greece is made up of a peninsula and a series of small islands. The region is very mountainous and has little farmland. It's geography made sea trade and travel very important. The mountains forced the greeks to build city-states instead of one country. "I am the wisest man alive, for I know one thing, and that is nothing". This quote was written by Socrates, a greek philosopher. This quote is one of my favorites because it indicates how Socrates thought and how peoples mind should work. He developed the Socratic method, and established the truth about life. Plato, Socrates and Aristotle all connect towards each other. Plato was a student of Socrates while Aristotle was a student of Plato. Plato just didn't want money and power, he always thought outside the box which made me strong and an independent man. He also started a school called the Academy Philosopher King. Aristotle wrote about science, art, law, poetry and about the environment, Plato was from a wealthy and powerful family, his actual name was Aristocles. Plato was a nickname, referring to his broad physique. Unit 4 Judaism, Christianity, Hinduism and Buddhism Judaism: Judaism is a religious tradition with origins dating back nearly four thousand years, rooted in the ancient near eastern region of Canaan (which is now Israel and Palestinian territories). Most believe that this religion started from 1500-100 BC. They read the torah which is the Hebrew bible. They're also the first religion to teach monotheism this is because god have a covenant with the ancient Israelites to bring gods message to humanity by their example. The Israelites would bring the world a more humane society. Therefore, god chose them. They thought that there was only one god for all humanity in which everyone should praise. God wanted them to bring a world where there's a just and peaceful society. They also have a strict discipline through their daily lives. It consists of prayers, family relationships, ethical behavior which are the ten commandments and ritual practices. They had a lot of dietary and sabbath behavior. The primary figures of Israelite culture include the patriarchs Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, and the prophet Moses, who received God's law at Mt. Sinai. Christianity "For I know the plans I have for you, declares the lord, plans to prosper you and not to harm you, plans to give you hope and a future". -Jeremiah (bible verse) Christianity started in Palestine in the 1st century. They read from the christian bible which include the old and new testament. Just like jews, they also believe in one god. Jesus was and still is the Messiah or Christ promised by god in the prophecies of the old testament. Many people had sins that they wanted to get rid of. Fortunately, this freed the people who believed in god from the sins that they've committed and it also offered resurrection and salvation in their afterlife. They have many practices that they must take in order for them to live a christian life. Their practices were baptism, initiated converts & the Eucharist, a sacred meal with prayers, chants and scripture readings. Christianity is mostly based on god or his son (Jesus). They think of him as the most humble human being that there could ever live in this entire world. God believed that everyone is his child, therefore he cares for everyone equally. They worship him in churches with joyous singing, with readings from the bible and with silent prayers. Many christians attend church services on Sunday (their day of rest). Hinduism The term "Hinduism" simply derives from the word "India" and refers to a wide variety of religious traditions and philosophies that have developed in India over thousands of years. Hinduism is a major religion in India practiced by about 80% of their population. They're not really sure about their original creator but they still found a way to manage India as it is today. They believe in the Vedas, which is their holy book. Vedas also means knowledge. They also believe that Buddha was a reincarnation of their gods. This goes back to the prehistoric times, of course. Hinduism is mostly based on reincarnation, they believe that all human beings should be able to come again into this universe. The practice of Hinduism consists of rites and ceremonies centering on birth, marriage, and death. There are many Hindu temples, which are considered to be dwelling places of the deities and to which people bring offerings. There are many Hindu deities but the most popular are the cults of Vishnu, Shiva, and Shakti. Brahma is also very important because that is their creator god. They believe in the caste system as well and the four stages of life. The four stages of life showed you how to live. The four stages of life were Brahmacharya-Asrama, Grihastha-Asrama,Vanaprastha-Asrama and Sannyasa-Asrama. This was an ideal way of living a well planned life. For instance, when you're a child you have to be educated (which is the first stage of life). You're supposed to acquire the knowledge you've received from your teacher and stay celibate. Children usually start this stage when they're 8 years old. This stage is usually for boys and they end this stage when they're about 20-25 years old. The second stage ends when they're about 50 years old, this is because this is the hardest stage to pass. The 3rd stage is to retire, give up sexual life, give up all the possessions to children, and enter the forest. Sounds crazy but it's true. Lastly, the 4th stage is to dedicate themselves entirely to spirituality. They must live on fruits and roots found in the jungle. Buddhism Buddhism was founded by Buddha. Sadly, they don't believe in any holy books. They also don't believe in the existence of the soul or the christian god. They believe many things but then again, they don't certainly believe in everything. But what they do believe is that the Buddha, Sangha and the Dhamma are the 3 most important requirements on the eightfold path or the principle teachings of Buddha. Also, unlike Hinduism, they believe that any follower can achieve Nirvana. The creator of Buddhism was also, Buddha. They knew who he was and he lived from about 566 to 480 B.C. He was the son of an Indian warrior-king. Buddha also believed in Karma. That either good or bad actions taken by a person can always come back to them. Good actions, which involve either the absence of bad actions, or actual positive acts, such as generosity, righteousness, and meditation, bring about happiness in the long run. Bad actions, such as lying, stealing or killing, bring about unhappiness in their lifetime. Unit 5 The Byzantine Empire The government wasn't that bad. They weren't allowed to force you out of your own home. Your opinion was honored. They believed that your opinion shouldn't make you suffer or put you in penalty. Either if you committed a crime purposely or accidentally, it will make a difference. For instance, if a crime was committed accidentally, then your punishment wouldn't be as harsh if you did it purposely. Also, their religion was Christianity. This is because Russia was converted to Christianity. The greeks went with the Russians to the church of St. Sophia, where he explained who god was, therefore they were astonished and praised greek ceremonies. A lot of countries traded with Constantinople which made the Byzantine Empire really successful. After the Western Roman empire fell to Germanic invaders in the 5th century A.D. the eastern part of the empire eventually became known as the Byzantine Empire. Byzantine Empire African History There was three major kingdoms in western Africa. Ghana, Mali and Song-hay. These kingdoms were in Sahel which made it easier for them to trade with parts of Africa, Europe and Asia. There was 23 kingdoms in Africa. Song-hay also fell because it got too big to control, and they weren't able to succeed with too much control. Mali is also the ancient city of Timbuktu! These kingdoms became really powerful because they were in a major spot for trading, which gave them an opportunity to get all the goods they wanted. The rivers helped Ghana to grow rich because they were used to transport goods and develop trade. They also collected taxes from people who passed through their kingdom, therefore they had more money in their hands. Ghana also relied n trade and they used camels to trade even faster! They were also successful because they traded a lot of gold and salt. Trade routes Mongols The mongols were invisible! It was located in central part of Asia. They were a group of nomads who were isolated from the rest of the world. Their name "mongols" comes from their homeland, Mongolia. Their isolation protected them from outsiders and allowed the Mongolian people to grow stronger and their technologies to gradually improve. They wanted to isolate themselves because they didn't want anyone intruding their land, they also didn't want to trade with anyone because of their lack of trust towards others. They lived in lands, which means that they had to live on tents. People often joined together so that they could live stronger and depend on each other. By 1180 AD the mongols elected a new king, named Genghis Khan. Khan also means king. But by 1206 AD he had gotten control over everyone! He also reorganized the new army so it could be professional and more aggressive. He then wanted to rule over many other kingdoms in central Asia. By 1209 AD he had taken over of the Uighurs, the Kyrgyz, and the Khitan. By 1237 Batu Khan decided to take over Russia. Over the next three years the Mongols (or Tatars) destroyed all of the major cities of Kievan Rus. The mongols were believed to be demons released from hell. Furthermore, after the six days of such a horrific and bloody battle, the city was totally perished. Moscow was also burnt down, even with people still breathing there. Japan "They do not depend upon mere legends and myths. They are not predicated on the false conception that the Emperor is divine and that the Japanese people are superior to other races." -Emperor Hirohito The empire of Japan was an empire that existed from the Meiji Restoration on the 3rd of January of 1868. Japan has been given false teachings about Christianity so the missionaries tried to get followers to commit an illegal act of destroying teachings of Buddha. If anyone practices Christianity, then they'll be executed. They also must order a thorough investigation to see how they were actually practicing Christianity. In other words, they despised christians. They also isolated themselves from all the other cultures. This gave them no cultural diffusion, no trading, and they cut themselves off from many of the other people and cultures that they would've encountered with. It was also part of the government that all daimyo were obligated to spend several months each year at the shoguns court in Edo, leaving their wives and children behind. The Japanese empire believed in the caste system. Japanese society was dominated by the samurai warrior class. However, they only made up 10% of the population, they still holed such great power. Right below the sumurai were the peasants and farmers. farmers were superior to artisans and merchants because they produced the food that all the other classes depended upon. Unfortunately, they weren't allowed to eat any of the rice that they grew, they had to hand it right in into their daimyo. Then came the artisans, they had their own section of major cities and lived in daimyo's castles. They had it pretty good if you ask me. Then came the merchants, they were very undesirable. The higher classes weren't allowed to talk them, only if it was for business. They were also traveling traders and shopkeepers. Japan's empire caste system Unit 6 Middle Ages The church had a big role in medieval Europe. The christian church also became an important political, economic, spiritual, and cultural force in Europe. People were forced to convert to Christianity, otherwise they would suffer the consequences. Fortunately, in the 11th century, the church split into two independent branches. The Eastern orthodox (Greek) which was based on Constantinople and Roman Catholic in Rome. There were many different ways that people felt about the church. People were usually comfortable going to the church because they needed support and comfort from the wars that were going on at that time. Many wars created such destruction in their minds that they needed a safe haven for them to go into, therefore that's what the church was for. People went there every Sundays, and considered it their second home since it brought peace to their community. They also had to give money to the church which was called a tithe. The priests had a lot of power because people really praised them. Dark Age The black death (bubonic plague) killed everyone in sight. The fleas on rats had spread it all across Europe and slowly, the population was decreasing. Many lost their jobs as well as their lives. Which means that the government was weakened. They lacked in medicine, so people weren't able to recover from the disease. This occurred in the early 1330's. In the beginning, it mainly affected rodents but the fleas were the ones who transmitted the disease to people. The effects were fevers and red swelling of the lymph glands called buboes. They also had red bumps all over their bodies that would soon turn black. By winter, the fleas would leave, and less people died. But by spring they came back and many more people died. After five years between 1347 and 1352 25 million people were dead, which was one third of Europe's population. Each year the survivors lived in constant fear and it didn't disappear until the 1600s. This caused a decline in the middle ages because there was many labor shortages. By the end of the 1300s peasants revolted against England, France, Belgium and Italy because they demanded to get higher wages, but their landlords refused. red swelling bumps 1/3 of the population died Middle Ages (more info) The government in medieval Europe was called feudalism. The king granted large pieces of land called fiefs to noblemen and bishops. The serfs which were landless peasants did most of the work on the field and gave all their crops to their landowner. The serfs obviously had to get something in return. The landowners gave them land and protection if any enemy decides to strike at them. By the end of the 11th century, the catholic church began to authorize crusades to expel muslim people from their holy land. The crusades also wore red crosses on their coats because they were promised that if they would, they would go to heaven and get rid of their sins. The crusades began in 1095, they also exposed Crusaders to Islamic literature, science and technology. This has a stupendous lasting effect on European intellectual life. People showed many devotion to the church, so they build cathedrals or either monasteries. Between the 10th and 13th century they had build churches like the Romanesque style. They had round masonry arches and barrel vaults supporting the roof. Some of these churches include the Porto Cathedral in Portugal and the Speyer Cathedral in Germany. Before the printing press in the 15th century, books were really well known and loved. In the 12th century people began to sell books of hours, psalters and other prayer books to only wealthy individuals. How women dressed peasants way of living peasants The way people lived in medieval times The lords had a better way of living Unit 7 The Renaissance was a great period of rebirth in art, literature and learning in the 14th century. This period of time mainly focused on what human can potentially accomplish. The Renaissance began in Italy, and crusades and trade with the middle east brought Italians into contact with Byzantine Civilization. Leonardo da Vinci was a part of the renaissance reformation, he was one of the biggest artist of the time because he had created Mona Lisa. He also created a helicopter and a Trebuchet. He was born on April 15, 1452 and died on may 2nd 1519. He was only concerned with the laws of science and nature which affected his art works. Mona Lisa was completely between 1505 and 1507. He had kept the painting with him til the end of his life; he wanted to make the painting a perfection. Yet nobody knew what the Mona Lisa was actually supposed to mean. Like many leaders of Renaissance humanism, he did not see a divide between science and art. Leonardo da Vinci "simplicity is the ultimate sophistication" -Leonardo da Vinci Mona Lisa Michelangelo Michelangelo was a painter, sculptor, architect, a poet and one of the greatest artist of the italian Renaissance. He was born on March 6th, 1475 in Caprese near Florence, Italy. He went to move into the house of Lorenzo de Medici which was one of the leaders of painters back in the days which gave Michelangelo, a good opportunity to be successful. He created a pieta in 1497, once everyone saw his creation, he became famous. He then produced a David by 1501-1504. When he created the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel in the Vatican (1508-1512) he was known as the greatest living artist of all time. "Every block of stone has a statue inside it and it is the task of the sculptor to discover it." This is one of Michelangelo's best quotes because it describes yet how much of a great artist he is, how much it means to him to sculpt something so beautiful. Pieta David Michelangelo Different types of arts Classical art was from 500 BC- 500 CE. It was life like, nude or toga wearing figures. It was also calm and they had no emotion on their faces. They were heroic figures or real life people, they also had very little background in the paintings. For Medieval art, is lasted from 500CE-1300CE. They were religious images with very stiff movement in the painting. It wasn't 3D which means that it wasn't life like, it was 2D paintings. They also had a lot of bright colors. The last type of art is Renaissance art, it was from 500 CE-1300 CE, this type of art include life like and 3D images. The people in these paintings had expressions on their faces and they included realistic light, that looked really real. classical art medieval art Renaissance background Renaissance art The church was both a political and economic institution, the church also tried a variety of ways to bring in money but the main ways was by selling indulgences. Martin Luther was a monk in Germany, in 1517 he posted his 95 theses on the door of a church. The theses outlined his list of arguments against the church. He thought that people shouldn't believe that their sins would magically be forgiven just by buying indulgences. People were supposed to get of their sins the hard way, but in the end they would be in heaven. He believed that what the church was doing, wasn't right. He was heard with the help of the printing press which was invented by Johannes Gutenberg. Martin Luther church selling indulgences 95 Theses Unit 8 Age of Exploration Many people wanted to explore for many reasons. They wanted an opportunity to find gold in which would bring them much wealth, they also believed in god and they wanted to look as if they were something to praise in the eyes of their lord and they also wanted glory and fame. Unfortunately, there were consequences that they had to face. It was either death, mutiny, illnesses or starvation. Many people knew the aftermath of exploring new lands but they still took the risk either way because they wanted to see what other things existed in other places. There Portuguese explorers like Bartolomeu Dias and Vasco da Gama who explored new land. In 1488 Bartolomeu became the first to travel around the southern tip of Africa, but he also died at sea and never made it India like he had planned. While in the other hand, Vasco sailed in 1497 and sailed around Africa and all the way around India, he brought back with him many valuable spices, however on his return trip he lost half of his crew. The sea can be very dangerous that's why people who are exploring at sea have to be very careful and have to be precautions of their surroundings. Vasco da Gama Vasco's route to India Bartolomeu Dias Dias's route Spanish Explorers and conquistadors Christopher Columbus and Ferdinand Magellan were two of the main spanish explorers. Christopher was Italian but he traveled for Spain in 1492, although he was searching for a faster route to India, he landed in the Caribbean sea instead. Even though, he wasn't the first to discover America, he was highly rewarded for being able to find it and come back to Spain safely with new spices. Ferdinand set sail in 1519 with 5 ships and 250 men to circumnavigate the globe. Sadly, he died during the journey and only 18 men survived to complete their task. Hernan Cortes and Francisco Pizarro were two spanish conquistadors. Hernan traveled in 1519 to Mexico to explore, then they came up against the Aztec empire. He wasn't petrified one bit, he captured their emperor Montezuma and took over the Aztec empire. While he was captured, he was tortured and they told him that they were going to release him if Cortes got the money he wanted, but in the end they ended up killing Montezuma, the empire didn't last when Cortes ruled it because he was inexperienced. Francisco traveled in 1520 to South America in order to conquer the Incas. In 1532, accompanied by his brothers, Pizarro overthrew the Inca leader Atahualpa and conquered Peru. Three years later, he founded the new capital city of Lima. Almagro also had killed his brother therefore for revenge he assassinated him. On June 26, 1541, in Lima, Peru, people who had also been defeated decided to avenge Almagro's death by assassinating Francisco Pizarro. Christopher Columbus Ferdinand Magellan Hernan Cortes Francisco Pizarro Vocabulary words (unit 8) Creoles: People born in the Americas to spanish parent
Mestizos: Below the creoles they were people who were mixed of both spanish and indian background
Encomienda: The right to demand labor or taxes from native americans living on land given by the spanish government to settlers
Montezuma: Aztec emperor who ruled over much of Mexico
Cortes: Spanish leader that took advantage of Montezuma's invitation
Pizarro: A bold conquistador that captured the Inca's emperor (Athualpa)
Onate: Founded the colony of new Mexico among the adobe villages of pueblo indians
De Las Casas: Priest led by harsh conditions to seek reform
Caravel: New type of ship designed by the portugese
Magnetic Compass: A needle that always points north which helped Captains sail a straight course
Astrolabe: Tool that determines the positions of the stars which helped to figure out latitude at sea Unit 9 Absolutism to Enlightenment Huguenot: French Protestants who endured severe persecution in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.
Divine rights of kings: the belief that kings received their power from God and are responsible only to god
Commonwealth: a republic
inflation: increased prices for goods and services combined with the reduced value of money
absolutism: a movement to end slavery
Boyar: a Russian noble
Natural rights: Basic rights that are guaranteed to all persons; basic rights that a government cannot deny-Locke-life, liberty, property.
Mannerism: an artistic movement that emerged in Italy in the 1520s and 1530s; it marked the end of the Renaissance by breaking down the principles of balance, harmony, and moderation.
heliocentric: Based on the belief that the sun is the center of the universe.
Separation of powers: form of government where the branches of the government limit and control each other. The Enlightment This was a time of culture, philosophy, and change. The French, Dutch, and Americans all revolted in this period. Remarkably, every single one of these rebellions were fought for democracy against absolutist monarchs. The Enlightenment was a movement in the 17th and 18th century that stressed freedom of thought, expression, and scientific experiments. They believed religion should be based on reason, and believing only what your senses told you. Therefore, their beliefs were really strong. As a result of these beliefs of free thought and government by consent, democracy was reborn in America and the Netherlands (France was taken over by Napoleon). Another product were the philosophes, French philosophers who defined the movement and came up with its driving theories, such as Francis Bacon, who came up with empiricism. This age is different from others because many rebellions would occur in such a little time. They felt that they should have a democracy and when they realized that they weren't getting what they were supposed to, they fought for what they felt was right. By "they" I mean as the citizens living in the Americas. City of Versailles Louis XIV had absolute power in France. He was also called the Sun King which made France the strongest country in Europe. He also believed in divine right of the Kings. The king received the right to rule and power from God. Therefore the people had no say. Kings didn't have to answer the people. His long reign was inscribed by the expansion of French influence in Europe and by the magnificence of his court and the Palace of Versailles. Louis XIV built this Palace of Versailles. 12 miles outside of Paris just far enough from Paris for his own safety; it had 20,000 acres; 1,400 fountains and 1,300 rooms; 4,000 nobles lived in Versailles so that Louis can keep an eye on them and keep them busy at work. He has over half the taxes of France that were used to maintain the court, the palace and gardens. He also destroyed all the bill for Versailles. Newton was also a part of this era. He did many experiments and made observations of objects in the physical world. One day he was observing the natural laws when an apple feel from a tree and bopped him on the head. That was when we discovered the law of gravity. Natural laws like gravity govern the universe. New ton came up with the idea that there is a force of attraction between objects that increases an object to move closer together. Newton's law of gravity keeps the planets within their orbits. Garden of Versailles Louis XIV Unit 10 French Revolution Estates: French social classes
Estates General: A group of representatives from various sections of french society
Bourgeoisie: French middle/working class
There were many causes for the french revolution. The French were inspired by the philosophers of the enlightenment and their ideas. Their government was also bankrupt so that meant that they had to fight to get back what they owned. King Louis XIV had spent most of their treasury. He had fed his dogs more than his citizens. People had given him taxes and he would waste all the money on luxuries for himself. There were also many social inequalities that was occurring. In other words, there were large differences between the rich and the poor. The French estates were also made up of the clergy (holy people). The second estate was made of the nobility and the third estate was made up of the bourgeoisie, wage earners and the peasantry. 90% of the population were made up of the peasants. The revolution began about in July 14th 1789 when there was a storming of the Bastille. This was when a hungry Paris mob (a prison) storms the Bastille because it was a symbol of the kings government. The army refused to stop them and this was considered the official beginning of the French Revolution. Death to the king :) On August 4th 1789 the "declaration of the rights of man" was written. The king was forced to sign and agree to uphold it. This also contained the enlightenment ideas and the french revolution slogan that states, "liberty, equality, and fraternity". The new constitution was also created by the national assembly in 1789-1791. This creates a limited monarchy in France with much more power for the people. The king had his death waiting for him. He was put on trial in December 1792, he was put on trial because he was considered a traitor to the people in France. Furthermore, he was found guilty and sentenced to death. His head was cut off and everybody celebrated afterward. People thought that their terror days were over, but in fact it just got started. From 1793-1794 thousands of anti-revolutionary people were put to death! There were 40,000 people that were executed! This was controlled by the Jacobins. The guillotine was also a kind of chainsaw that was used to kill "criminals". They thought that this was a more humane death because they didn't feel anything, so they died without any pain. People were also astonished because right after they died,people started blinking, they were speaking and their mouth was moving as well. Napoleon The Life of Napoleon was born in 1769 in Corsica and was a son of a noble. In 1785, when he was 16 he became an officer in the french army. He won great battles for the French and was promoted to major general by 1795. On November 11th, he seized control in France and created a new constitution and named himself first consul; he was 1 of 3 governing leaders. His popularity and power made it possible for him to crown himself emperor on December 2nd, 1804. By 1810 he had tremendously expanded French territory through military conquests. Some countries were now considered satellite states which meant that they were dependent on France. Then consequences starts to rise and he falls from power. This is because there was a block of trade from Great Britain and it hurt the economy of many satellites. This wasn't compelling for Napoleon because he needed to trade, to stay constant in the amount of power he had. He also removed the royals of Spain and replaced them with his brother Joseph, which greatly angered the Spanish! There was also an invasion of Russia, they attacked in 1812 with 650,00 men and they won the first battle in the summer and became confident. This led them towards Moscow and destroying and burning their towns. This slowly became the end of Napoleon. He was then banished to the island of Elba in 1814, and invaded France in 1815. All of Europe decided to unit together to fight against. They wanted him dead! He then was captured at the battle of Waterloo and died in 1821. People despised
him I am so
at me Napoleon Napoleon wasn't liked as he thought he was.