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APA Citation + Do's & Don'ts
Transcript of APA Citation + Do's & Don'ts
APA format emphasizes authors and dates because
are important for the type of research published by the American Psychological Association and in related disciplines.
Top Two Info Bits
are the first two pieces of the citations in your references list and are the two elements used for in-text citations
The basic pieces of any APA citation follow four W’s:
is the author(s)
is the date
is the title
is the publication information.
Do's & Dont's... The Don'ts
Don't Combine Styles
Don't overuse direct quotes
Don't wait until the last minute
Don't include lazy paraphrasing
Do's & Don'ts... The Do's
Do keep track of your sources
Do distinguish between
your ideas & ideas of others
Do check computer-generated citations
Do make sure each cited reference
has a matching in-text citation.
Do use HELP
Photo credit: Flickr user jessamyn via Creative Commons license
Please feel free to contact me via –
• the Ask the Librarian discussion board in D2L
• email (firstname.lastname@example.org)
• via the chat button under my profile in the LibGuide (when I am online)
Any HACC librarian will be happy to help you –
• via the “Ask Us” button on the right of library website
• with a one-on-one appointment
• in person at any campus library
Just remember, the point of all citation work is to give
to your sources and to leave an information
for instructors and future researchers to follow... not to drive students crazy!
Focus most of your effort on good research, organization and writing.
Don't let APA citation phobia distract you from doing your best.
Mixing citing styles will cause you to lose points.
For example, if you're familiar with the MLA style (often used in English and Humanities classes),
be careful not to confuse its rules with APA rules.
The language is unusually vivid, bold, or inventive.
The quotation cannot be paraphrased without distortion or loss of meaning.
The words themselves are at issue in your interpretation.
The quotation represents and emphasizes a body of opinion or the view of an important expert.
The quotation emphatically reinforces your own idea.
The quotation is an illustration, such as a graph, diagram, or table (Aaron, 417).
Aaron, Jane E. LB Brief: The Little, Brown Handbook, Brief Version. Custom Ed. for HACC. Boston: Pearson, 2014. Print
Use Direct Quotations When...
are the most time-consuming elements of creating an academic paper, leave plenty of time to complete and proof your citations.
Librarians can even check and correct your citations
if you complete them ahead of time!
Strong paraphrasing calls for:
your source, using
your own words
and own sentence structure (as much as possible) and
retaining the original meaning
of the source.
Save to a flash drive
Email sources to yourself
Save to cloud storage (i.e., Google Drive)
Print out sources and keep them all in one place
Many library databases have built-in citation helpers. These tools can save you a lot of typing time, but you must go over each citation yourself and check for accuracy!
Just keep in mind, these citations are computer-generated and are rarely perfect.
If a source is listed on your References page, it must also be cited somewhere in the body of your paper.
The reverse is also true. All in-text citations must correspond with a matching full citation on the References page.
Any time you are referring to the
work or ideas of others
, you must give them credit. This applies just as much to
as it does to