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Pan Chao

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Amy Antoninka

on 2 November 2011

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Transcript of Pan Chao

Pan K'uang
(daughter)
Pan Chieh-yu
(1st son)
Pan Po
(2nd son)
Pan Yu
(3rd son)
Pan Chih
Pan Piao
Pan Ssu
brother-in-law of Emperor Ch'eng;
Through whom he recieves a valuable library
Han loyalist
advisor to and military officer under Emperor Kuang-wu
Pan Ku
Pan Ch'ao
Pan Chao
32-92 C.E.
Historian, died in prison
32-102 C.E.
General
45-114 C.E.
Historian, tutor to Empress
The Later Han
Dynasty (25-220 CE)
Lao Tzu (604-517 B.C.E.)
Confucius (551–479 B.C.E.)
Famen Temple
Silk road
Invention of paper (105 C.E.)
Buddhism introduced
Sun Tzu (544-496B.C.E)
"The Art of War"
"Tao Te Ching"
"Analects"
The Tr'ng Sisters of Vietnam rebelled against Han in 40 CE
Emperor Zhang (r. 75–88 CE)
Battle of Yiwulu in 73 CE
Battle of Ikh Bayan in 89 CE
91 CE, the nomadic Xianbei occupied the area from the borders of the Buyeo Kingdom
Pan Ch'ao subdued Kashgar and its ally Sogdiana in 90 CE. In 91 CE, named the Protector General of the Western Regions.
Emperor Ho (r. 88–105 CE)
Timeline Pan Chao
Pan Chao born 47 CE
Becomes tutor of Teng Sui, (96 CE)
Writes "Lessons for Women" at 61 (106CE)
Dies 114 CE
Empress Yin implicated in witch craft
dies 102 CE
Emperor Ho dies (105)
Teng Sui becomes Empress 102 CE
Teng Sui becomes Empress Regent 106 CE
Emperor Shang 105-106 CE
Epmeror An 107-125 CE
Pan Chao Family Tree
Teng Sui Famliy Tree
For to win one hundred victories in one hundred battles is not the acme of skill. To subdue the enemy without fighting is the acme of skill.
Sun Tzu, "The Art of War"
When rich speculators prosper
while farmers lose their land;
when government officials spend money
on weapons instead of cures;
when the upper class is extravagant and irresponsible
while the poor have nowhere to turn—
all this is robbery and chaos.
It is not in keeping with the Tao.
Lao Tzu “Tao Te Ching,” 53
Pretend inferiority and encourage his arrogance.
Sun Tzu, "The Art of War"
The Master is content
to serve as an example
and does not impose her will.
She is pointed, but doesn’t pierce.
Straightforward, but supple.
Lao Tzu “Tao Te Ching,” 58
took control after his brother Emperor Jing was assassinated in a rebellion
Deng Chen
(wife of Deng Hsus and matenal grandmother of Yin Hsiao-ho)
Pan Chao
The Master said, “I am not someone who was born with knowledge. I simply love antiquity, and diligently look there for knowledge.” Analects 7.20

The Master said, “How could I dare lay claim to either sageliness or Goodness? What can be said about me is no more than this: I work at it without growing tired and encourage others without growing weary.” Analects 7.34

The Master said, “Do I possess wisdom? No, I do not.” Analects 9.8
I, the unworthy writer, am unsophisticated, unenlightened, and by nature unintelligent, but I am fortunate both to have received not a little favor from my scholarly Father, and to have had a cultured mother and teachers upon whom to rely for a literary education as well as for training in good manners. . . .

Day and night I was distressed in heart, but I labored without confessing weariness. Now and hereafter, however, I know how to escape from such fears.

Pan Chao "Lessons for Women"
Pan Chao's Confucian Humility
Let a woman modestly yield to others; let her respect others; let her put others first, herself last.

Should she do something good, let her not mention it; should she do something bad let her not deny it.

Pan Chao, "Lesson for Women"
A great nation is like a great man:
When he makes a mistake, he realizes it.
Having realized it he admits it.
Having admitted it, he corrects it.
He considers those who point out his faults
as his benevolent teacher.
He thinks of his enemies
as the shadow he himself casts.

Lao Tzu, Tao Te Ching 61

The mark of a tolerant person
is freedom from her own ideas.
Tolerant like the sky,
all-pervading like sunlight,
firm like a mountain,
supple like a tree in the wind,
she has no destination in view
and makes use of anything
life happen to bring her way.

Lao Tzu, Toa Te Ching, 59
To counteract firmness nothing equals compliance. . .

So respect may be defined as nothing other than holding on to that which is permanent; and acquiescence nothing other than being liberal and generous.

Those who are steadfast in devotion know that they should stay in their proper places.

Pan Chao, "Lessons for Women"
Moderation, tolerance, and suppleness
Serving others
Those who are steadfast in devotion know that they should stay in their proper places; those who are liberal and generous esteem others, and honor and serve them.
Pan Chao, "Lessons for Women"
If you want to learn how to govern,
avoid being clever or rich.
The simplest pattern is the clearest.
Content with an ordinary life,
you can show all people the way
back to their own true nature.

Lao Tzu, Tao Te Ching, 65
Let a woman retire late to bed, but rise early to duties; let her nor dread tasks by day or by night. Let her not refuse to perform domestic duties whether easy or difficult. That which must be done, let her finish completely, tidily, and systematically.

Pan Chao, "Lessons for Women"
The simple life
Cultivating greatness through respect
"Modesty is virtues handle; acquiescence is the wife’s (most refined) characteristic. All who possess these two have sufficient for harmony with others."
Pan Chao, "Lessons for Women"
Lessons for Women
Emperor Kwaung-wu (r. 25-57 C.E.)
Pan Chao Bibliography:

Swann, Nancy Lee. Pan Chao: foremost woman scholar of China (Michigan classics in Chinese studies; no. 5). Ann Arbor: Center for Chinese Studies, The University of Michigan, c2001. (xxi, 179 p.: ill., maps).

The red brush: writing women of imperial China / Wilt Idema and Beata Grant (Harvard East Asian monographs; 231). Cambridge: Harvard University Asia Center, c2004.

Liu, Hsiang. The position of woman in early China according to the Lieh nu chuan, "The biographies of eminent Chinese women" / [edited] by Albert Richard O'Hara. Westport, Conn.: Hyperion Press, 1981. (xii, 301 p.)

Holding up half the sky: Chinese women past, present, and future / edited by Tao Jie, Zheng Bijun, and Shirley L. Mow; foreword by Gail Hershatter; translated by Amy Russell. New York: Feminist Press at the City University of New York, 2004. (xxxvi, 313 p.) Xia Xiaohong's essay in this collection, "New Meanings in a Classic: Differing Interpretations of Ban Zhao and Her Admonitions for Women in the Late Qing Dynasty,"

Wing, Sherin. Technology, Commentary, and the Admonitions for Women. Journal of International Women's Studies, 5:1 (2003), 42-66.

Raphals, Lisa Ann. Sharing the light: representations of women and virtue in early China (SUNY series in Chinese philosophy and culture) Albany, N.Y.: State University of New York Press, c1998. (xxiii, 348 p.: ill.)

http://home.infionline.net/~ddisse/banzhao.html#anchor111673

The Historical Template of Pan Chao's "N Chieh"
Author(s): Yu-Shih ChenSource: T'oung Pao, Second Series, Vol. 82, Fasc. 4/5 (1996), pp. 229-257
"Nu Jie"
"Needle and Thread"

Tempered, annealed, the hard essence of autumn metals
finely forged, subtle, yet perdurable and straight.

By nature penetrating deep yet advancing by inches
to span all things yet stitch them up together,

Only needle-and-thread's delicate footsteps
are truly broad-ranging yet without beginning!

How can those who count pennies calculate their worth?
They may carve mountains yet lack all understanding

Pan Chao
Emperor Kuang-wu + Empress Yin Lihua
(r. 25-57 C.E.)
Emperor Ho
(r. 88-105 CE,
from age 10-27)
Yin Shin (older brother)
Yin Hsing (younger brother)
son
son
Yin Hsiao-ho
(Empress Yin)
Imprisoned for witch craft,
suicide by poison
daughter + Deng Hsun
Teng Sui
(r. 102-121, in 106 becomes Empress at 12, Regent at 16)
Emperor Shang
(son of Ho, r. 105-106, died at age 2)
Emperor An
(r. 107-125,
from age 1-13)
Whoever relies on the Tao in governing men
doesn’t try to force issues
or defeat enemies by force of arms.
For every force there is a counter force.
Violence even well-intentioned,
always rebounds upon the self.
Lao Tzu “Tao Te Ching,” 30
"At a word from mother Pan the whole family resigned" (Swann, p. 236).
If you're always groveling before the great,
people become envious and quarrelsome.
If you hide your riches
you obviously think people are robbers.
Soon they will be.

If on the other hand, you flaunt your things
you encourage people to be devoured by their own greed.
So the sage governs herself, no other people.
She empties her own mind and so
helps free others from greed and envy
Lao Tzu, Tao Te Ching, 3
Water seeks the lowest place
and cleanses what it touches.
It is as satisfied with the humble
as with the exalted.
Lao Tzu, Tao Te Ching, 8
Violence recoils on the person who inflicts it.
Where armies camp, brambles grow.
Where armies march desolation follows.
Fight only if you must. Be resolute and let go.
Be resolute and abandon pride.
Be resolute and abandon vanity.
Be resolute and abandon cruelty.
Attain your purpose and stop.
Lao Tzu, Tao Te Ching, 30
“lest she distract his thoughts from affairs of the state.”
"The emperor many times summoned Pan Chao to the palace where he ordered the empress and the ladies...to treat her as a teacher."
(Fan Yeh, "Hou Han Shu")
Notes for Pan Chao Prezi
Pan Chao’s only English-speaking biographer calls Pan Chao the foremost woman scholar of China. A great honor, but this may suggest that she’s only been compared to her female counter parts. However, Pan Chao is also considered one of the top 2 or 3 historians in China. Pan Chao is part of a culture. She lives during The Han Empire. An empire considered to have unparalleled prosperity and peace. And to a great degree this is true. But there are some glitches to this picture. And Pan Chao is right in the middle of the glitches.

We are going to spend some time first trying to situate Pan Chao in her historic and cultural context. Within her family, within her political systems, and then try to return to her words to if they have a broader context and a broader meaning.

First let’s look at what’s going on in China at this time. She lives during the Later (or Eastern) Han Dynasty. The capital gets moves East, in an effort to bring great unity to China.

Let’s look first at the dominant thought systems of the time. Who do you think might have been widely read and known in Pan Chao’s time? (Confucius) Confucius is concerned with social order. He advocates li, that is performing one’s duty within one’s social station. Children respect parents, wives respect husbands, ect.

His thought is pervasive at this time. But so is the thought of Lao Tzu. Taoism becomes a canonical Chinese text during the later han dynasty. As the founder of Taoism, Lao Tzu’s views differ some from Confucian views. Lao Tzu provides a more mystical understanding of the cosmos – and also of social order. His understanding of the Tao, or dow, is present in nature, and in everything. The Tao et ching emphasizes simplicity, calmness, and freedom from the tyranny of desire.

One of his followers is Sun Tzu, who wrote the Art of War. The text does contain a lot of advice on waging war, but it also suggests that it’s always better to avoid war. And if you can’t avoid war you should try to win without fighting. What could that mean? (Diplomacy, compromise – perhaps even some sneaky tactics)

Here’s a temple that’s constructed during the Later Han Dynasty. What kind of temple do you think it is?

It’s Buddist. Buddism is introduced into China during the Early or Western Han D, and during this time period it’s gaining popularity. Now considering we’ve just seen 3 different views in one area, How do you think the different groups are working out for china? What happens when foreign ideas come into one area? We’ve seen some examples: Egypt didn’t appreciate the Isralites’ religion. But the Greeks welcomed foreigners (though they put Socrates to death). What do you think happens in China? What are some Chinese values that might be at play? (Harmony, unity) These religions and thought systems get blended. Even today, (a Chinese friend tells me) most Chinese say they are both this and that.

There are innovations in daily life too,. Cooking (2 cauldrons, hot plate areas) paper is invented. The silk road develops (Marcus Arilius might have travelled it to china)). And of course, Pan Chao wrote.

We need a fuller glimpse of her specific situation. Explain conflict. Between Kwaung-wu and Zhang, there’s some discord, some poverty due to poor farming conditions, and some disease. Still the government seems to prosper. Affluence leads to greed. In a Feudal society, like China’s at this time, Emperors make a living off taxing the poor. And some folks revolt.

When rich speculators prosper
while farmers lose their land;
when government officials spend money
on weapons instead of cures;
when the upper class is extravagant and irresponsible
while the poor have nowhere to turn—
all this is robbery and chaos.
It is not in keeping with the Tao.
Lao Tzu “Tao Te Ching,” 53

The Pan family is right in the center of this. They are a noble family, but not necessarily a wealthy one. They have some notable figures. Pan Chao’s great aunt (Pan Cheih-yu) for example is one of the women who makes it into the “Biographies of Emminent Women”. Pan Cheih-yu was one of Emperor Ch’eng’s concubines. She’s famous for refusing to ride in the Emperor’s litter, “lest she distract his thoughts from affairs of the state.” The emperor found this charming. But it also won for her the favor of the Empress!

Also of note are Pan Chao’s Pan Yu and His son Pan Ssu. Both were eminent scholars. Pan yu receives a library from E Cheng, it gets passed down to Pan Ssu, and Pan Chao and her siblings get to learn in it. and likely met mainly scholars who traveled to study in it as well.
Pan Chao’s brothers were twins. One loved study, the other action. Both were distinguished. Pan Ku was a revered historian, until he was influenced to take part in military life. He didn’t show much success, and was imprisoned.

Pan ch’ao on the other hand won some pretty famous battles near contemporary Eastern Turkistan. But it was through his sister that he received recognition. Emperor Ho was so moved by her request on behalf of her brother, He was awarded a rank within the empire.

Pan Chao used rhetoric on this occasion to “fight for her brother” And her rhetoric seems to flow from her understanding of strategy illustrated here.

she’s often at the Imperial court because the Emperor summons her. Notice that this is a closely related family. But also a very young one, during Pan Chao’s time at palace.

Emperor Ho greatly respects her. She’s older than he is at this point. During Ho’s reign she between 41 and 60. She has his ear.

The 2 main women in his life are Hsiao-ho and Teng Sui. Yin is empress. Teng is a concubine. But, ho is having trouble getting male heirs. Teng suggests he take other concubines, while Yin suggest he avoids all females company but hers. Emperor ho finds Yin’s advise selfish, motivated by jealousy and ambition. And he accuses her of witch craft. Yin commits suicide, and Ho takes Teng as empress. Lao Tzu might have put the situation this way: Yin was devoured by her own greed.

Look how young Teng is at this time - 12. Do you think she was likely to have figured this out for herself? She likely was instructed by Pan Chao. And since the next two emperors are a baby and a child, Pan Chao was likely ruler of the Empire, through the Emprress regent, Teng.

So you read Lessons for Women to day. For whom does she say she writes it? (her unmarried daughters)
These daughters were likely in their 40’s. They were either already married, or they weren’t getting married. Who else might Pan Chao have has written this for? (Empress Teng).

So let’s look at some of what it might mean to a very young empress.

Pretend inferiority and encourage his arrogance.
Sun Tzu, "The Art of War"

1. I, the unworthy writer, am unsophisticated, unenlightened, and by nature unintelligent, but I am fortunate both to have received not a little favor from my scholarly Father, and to have had a cultured mother and teachers upon whom to rely for a literary education as well as for training in good manners. . . .

Day and night I was distressed in heart, but I labored without confessing weariness. Now and hereafter, however, I know how to escape from such fears.

Pan Chao "Lessons for Women"

The Master said, “I am not someone who was born with knowledge. I simply love antiquity, and diligently look there for knowledge.” Analects 7.20

The Master said, “How could I dare lay claim to either sageliness or Goodness? What can be said about me is no more than this: I work at it without growing tired and encourage others without growing weary.” Analects 7.34

The Master said, “Do I possess wisdom? No, I do not.” Analects 9.8

2. Those who are steadfast in devotion know that they should stay in their proper places; those who are liberal and generous esteem others, and honor and serve them.
Pan Chao, "Lessons for Women"

The Master is content
to serve as an example
and does not impose her will.
She is pointed, but doesn’t pierce.
Straightforward, but supple.
Lao Tzu “Tao Te Ching,” 58

3. To counteract firmness nothing equals compliance. . .So respect may be defined as nothing other than holding on to that which is permanent; and acquiescence nothing other than being liberal and generous.Those who are steadfast in devotion know that they should stay in their proper places.

Pan Chao, "Lessons for Women"
The mark of a tolerant person
is freedom from her own ideas.
Tolerant like the sky,
all-pervading like sunlight,
firm like a mountain,
supple like a tree in the wind,
she has no destination in view
and makes use of anything
life happen to bring her way.

Lao Tzu, Toa Te Ching, 59

4. Let a woman modestly yield to others; let her respect others; let her put others first, herself last.Should she do something good, let her not mention it; should she do something bad let her not deny it. Pan Chao, "Lesson for Women"
A great nation is like a great man:
When he makes a mistake, he realizes it.
Having realized it he admits it.
Having admitted it, he corrects it.
He considers those who point out his faults
as his benevolent teacher.
He thinks of his enemies
as the shadow he himself casts.

Lao Tzu, Tao Te Ching 61

5.Let a woman retire late to bed, but rise early to duties; let her nor dread tasks by day or by night. Let her not refuse to perform domestic duties whether easy or difficult. That which must be done, let her finish completely, tidily, and systematically. Pan Chao, "Lessons for Women"
If you want to learn how to govern,
avoid being clever or rich.
The simplest pattern is the clearest.
Content with an ordinary life,
you can show all people the way
back to their own true nature.

Lao Tzu, Toa Te Ching, 65

6."Modesty is virtues handle; acquiescence is the wife’s (most refined) characteristic. All who possess these two have sufficient for harmony with others."
Pan Chao, "Lessons for Women"

Water seeks the lowest place
and cleanses what it touches.
It is as satisfied with the humble
as with the exalted.
Lao Tzu, Tao Te Ching, 8
Poem
"Needle and Thread"

Tempered, annealed, the hard essence of autumn metals
finely forged, subtle, yet perdurable and straight.

By nature penetrating deep yet advancing by inches
to span all things yet stitch them up together,

Only needle-and-thread's delicate footsteps
are truly broad-ranging yet without beginning!

How can those who count pennies calculate their worth?
They may carve mountains yet lack all understanding

Pan Chao
wu wei
Cloth was a means to pay fines and taxes
Producing large amounts of cloth could excuse husband from forced labor
Economic contribution to family and state (trade)
Textile Manufacturing
Network of land-based trade routes that extended from China and Central Asia through North India and the Roman Empire (7,000 miles or trade routes)
Name from Chinese silk trade
Aided in expansion of Han empire
Chinese traded silk, tea, and spices for metal and precious stones (India) or gold, silver, and glass (Roman Empire)
Spread Buddhism from India to China
Han Dynasty
First made from hemp, soaked and beaten to a pulp, then pressed and dried in a paper mold
Mold made from bamboo and silk
Later made paper from tree bark, bamboo, and plant fibers as well as hemp
Food Culture
Chopsticks invented long before Han dynasty
Bronze and clay cooking and serving vessels; inscriptions often indicated usage
Methods: steam and stir-fry
Imperial kitchens were innovative in ingredients, techniques, and organization
Grew vegetables in hothouses to avoid seasonal constraints
22 departments and staff of 2,300: Chief cook, internal cooks, external cooks (all had noble titles); assistants, nutritionists, wine officers
After the Han dynasty, food rituals gradually changed:
Joint, rather than separate meals
Began writing cookbooks (recipes and nutritional theories)
Women's Advice Literature



(1st century B.C.E.)
Addressed to women and young girls
“Domestic Regulations” described ritual conduct in the home: caring for in-laws (bathing, clothing, feeding), spinning, weaving, sewing, child-rearing
Argued that sexes should be segregated from age 6
Biographies of Exemplary Women
Record of Ritual
by Liu Xiang (1st century B.C.E.)
Teaches moral lessons through women’s history
Chapters organized by virtues or vices
Gives advice to sons, husbands, rulers
Argues that women should be self-sufficient beyond the domestic realm
Approves of women’s public visibility
Attempted to expose emperor and court ladies (wives and concubines) to proper female role models
Third important advice text: Pan Chao’s

(1st century C.E.)
Speaker: Views appear to be more consistent with Record of Ritual than Biographies, but cultural and literary context requires us to look closer.
Pan Chao advocates humility, chastity, meekness, subservience, and deference in her writing
She also advocates female literacy
Believes women should be as educated as male counterparts
She demonstrates that women’s behaviors affect the affairs of the state
Lessons for Women
Prescriptive, not descriptive
3 Primary Texts of the Han Period:
Education of Women:
Domestic Arts: Primarily for roles of wives and mothers
Women might act for a man in public (during illness or death)
Women married for political alliances were expected to forge and maintain relationships between states
Often learned writing skills by copying advice literature: “I wish every one of you, my daughters each write out a copy for yourself” –Pan Chao
‘One teapot is usually accompanied by four cups. But have you ever seen one cup with four teapots?’
Full transcript