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Transcript of Nanotechnology
level of the nanometer (nm), one billionth of a meter.
It is very small and very hard to see with the human eye but the types of inventions this world has come across with nanotechnology are endless.
What is Nanotechnology?
In 1959, physicist Richard Feynman gave a speech to the American Physical Society at the California Institute of Technology called “There’s Plenty of Room at the Bottom.”
In that speech, he talked about the main things about nano-scale science
Feynman also explained that the biggest barrier to manipulating the nano-scale world was that we could not see it
Feynman ended it off by saying that the problems of chemistry and biology can really be helped if we could actually see what we are looking at, even at a very small atomic level
So he put on a challenge to the world saying:
“Is there no way to make the electron microscope more powerful?”
Summarize Richard Feymon's challenge to the scientific community
Normal microscopes use lenses to magnify an object until it is big enough to be seen with an unaided eye but STM lets you "see" indirectly without any magnification
When the features are graphically displayed on a computer screen, you are able to “see” each of the separate atoms and molecules that make up the sample. Since it relies on electrical flow between the tip and sample, the machine can only be used to examine materials that will be able to conduct at least a small electric current.
Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM)
Richard Smalley discovered the Buckyball in Rice University with two other scientists Robert Curl and Harold Kroto.
Curl, Kroto and Smalley shared the Nobel Prize in Chemistry
(1996) for their discovery.
Contribution made by Richard Smalley at Rice University
Nanotechnology can be used for anything, even sunscreen!
In this type of sunscreen nanoparticles prevent skin cancer by absorbing UV light, without making your face feel 'cakey'
Nanotechnology & Sunscreen
There are two types of nanoparticles added to the sunscreen, Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) and Zinc Oxide (ZnO)
These sunscreen ingredients are usually manufactured into nanoparticles 25- 50 nanometers wide
These nanoparticles reflect UV light and they also absorb the visible light, making the sunscreen transparent on skin
How They Do It?
More stable than other UV filters (less reapplication)
Low Allergen Materials
Feels lighter on skin and no 'cakey' feel
Transparent when applied on skin
Absorbs UV and Visible Light
Why use this sunscreen?
Scientists says that nanoparticles cannot go through the dead skin layer of the skin cells
Scientists also says it is safe to use because our human body's immune system is able to remove any nanoparticles that enters our body if it does go through the skin
Although more work is needed in the lab to see how this process works
Is it safe to use?
History of Nanotechnology
What is a buckyball?
What is a nanotube?
Behavior of these substances that makes them unusual?
Why are organizations like etc group concerned about the patenting and risk assessment processes of nano compounds?
Buckyballs are made of sixty carbon atoms arranged like the hexagons and pentagons of a soccer ball
Both buckyballs (a.k.a. fullerenes) are molecules consisting solely of carbon atoms.
Buckyballs are one of three crystalline forms of carbon: graphite and diamond are the other two forms.
Buckyballs (short for buckminsterfullerenes) are perfect spheres,
Discovered in 1991 by Sumio Iijima
Nanotubes are a member of the fullerene chemical family, but of course they are not spherical like the buckyball
Nanotubes are long and thin and shaped liked tubes
They can be hollow like straws or rolled up inside each other like posters stored in a mailing tube
Nanotubes are also molecules consisting solely of carbon atoms
They both have differences in arrangements of the carbon atoms
Nanotubes are 100 times stronger than steel and six times lighter;
Nanotubes are good conductors of electricity and can also act as semi-conductors for molecular electronics.
Both these types of carbon molecules are self-assembled, meaning that when conditions are just right, they form into their distinctive configurations all on their own.
The potential impact of nanoparticles on the environment and on human health is enormous.
Even though commercial products are already on the market (including food, cosmetics and sunscreens), nanoparticles are not regulated by any government in the world!
In March 2004, a study showed that buckyballs can cause brain damage in fish.
Researchers studying the effects of carbon nanotubes on the lungs of rats reported in 2003 that nanotubes are more toxic than quartz dust.
Other scientists have presented varying but still worrying findings on nanotube toxicity.
We don't know how nanoparticles will behave yet so they can still harm us.
Cave, Holly. "The Nanotechnology in Your Sunscreen." The Guardien. Guardian News and Media Limited, 13 Mar. 2014. Web. 22 Mar. 2015. <http://www.theguardian.com/science/small-world/2014/mar/13/nanotechnology-sunscreen-skin-cancer>.
"Nanoparticles and Sunscreen Safety." Nanoparticles and Sunscreen Safety. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Mar. 2015. <http://www.nanowerk.com/spotlight/spotid=714.php>.
Five Things Worth Knowing About Nanoparticles and Sunscreen. Risk Bites, 15 June 2014. Web. 22 Mar. 2015. <-https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VV0cCg4clMw->
Nanotechnology. Digital image. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Mar. 2015. <Https://thinkexponential.files.wordpress.com/2013/02/fotolia_31114690_l.jpg.>.
Microscope. Digital image. Clker. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Mar. 2015. <http://www.clker.com/cliparts/S/H/J/d/w/l/microscope.svg>.
Richard Feynman Nobel. Digital image. Wikipedia. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Mar. 2015. <http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/4/42 Richard_Feynman_Nobel.jpg>.
Scanning Tunneling Microscope. Digital image. Wikipedia. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Mar. 2015. <http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f9/ScanningTunnelingMicroscope_schematic.png>.
It's a nanoparticle
And no this!
Smalley. Digital image. Rice. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Mar. 2015. <https://smalley.rice.edu/uploadedImages/Year_of_Nano/Buckyball_Anniversary/smalley.jpg>.
Nobel Prize. Digital image. MedIndia. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Mar. 2015. <http://www.medindia.net/health-images/nobel-prize.jpg>.
Buckyball-3. Digital image. Godunov. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Mar. 2015. <http://www.godunov.com/bucky/buckyball-3.gif>.
Nanotube. Digital image. Electroiq. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Mar. 2015. <http://electroiq.com/content/dam/eiq/online-articles/2013/05/carbon%20nanotubes.jpg/_jcr_content/renditions/cq5dam.web.1280.1280.jpeg>.
Multiwall-Large. Digital image. Nanotech-now. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Mar. 2015. <http://www.nanotech-now.com/images/multiwall-large.jpg>.
Sad Face. Digital image. Cliparts. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Mar. 2015. <http://cliparts.co/cliparts/8iz/neA/8izneAbbT.jpg>.
Sunburn. Digital image. ToonVectors. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Mar. 2015. <http://cdn.toonvectors.com/images/35/10059/toonvectors-10059-940.jpg>.
Sunblock. Digital image. Prosports Experience. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Mar. 2015. <http://www.prosportsexperience.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/06/Sunblock.jpg>.
Girl Applying Suntan Lotion. Digital image. Wordpress. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Mar. 2015. <https://dubaiunveiled.files.wordpress.com/2013/06/girl-applying-suntan-lotion.jpg>.
Cartoon Sun. Digital image. Clker. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Mar. 2015. <http://www.clker.com/cliparts/s/y/s/q/h/R/cartoon-sun-md.png>.
Thumbs Up. Digital image. Envato. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Mar. 2015. <https://0.s3.envato.com/files/92128245/pv_590.jpg>.
References - Cont.