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Labor & Delivery

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Kayla Hoelscher

on 15 November 2017

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Transcript of Labor & Delivery

Prelabor is a is a period of irregular uterine contractions in which the cervix thins, softens, and may begin to dilate.

tightening and releasing of the muscle of the uterus
the lower part of the uterus
- widening of the cervix
Other signs of labor may be “show”
- when the plug of mucus from the cervix comes away
Labor is divided into three stages
It begins with irregular contractions of that occur every 20 to 30 minutes
1st time mothers, labor may last between 12 to 24 hours
2nd time mothers, labor usually averages around 6 hours
Labor & Delivery
Fetal Monitoring
During labor, the nurse will be checking the baby’s heart rate to keep tabs on how he’s tolerating the conditions
Most women who give birth in the U.S. hospitals are hooked up to an electronic
fetal monitor
continuously throughout labor
Wide stretchy bands hold two electronic disks called transducers against the mother's abdomen
Unusual or distressed heart rates may lead to an emergency C-section
First Stage
Second Stage
The cervix becomes fully dilated to a size of 4 inches
(10 centimeters)

The cervix opens and the baby moves down the birth canal
The mother pushes and bears down in response to the pressure
The crown of the baby’s head becomes visible

the top of the head appears at the opening of the birth canal
The head changes shape to ease passage through the birth canal
If the fit between the mother and baby are not adequate the doctor may widen the opening with a surgical cut called an
The rest of the body slips out easily

Third Stage
Types of Deliveries
Reasons for C-Section
Apgcar Scale
Premature Birth
Postpartum Blues
Work Environment
Hours of Work
Contractions prepare the mother’s body to give birth
Mother's water breaks
Each time the uterus contracts, the muscles pull up the cervix, slowly thinning and opening it
- the thinning of the cervix
Uterine contractions begin and are spaced 10 to 20 minutes apart
Contractions begin gentle but become more powerful and uncomfortable
The cervix dilates with each contraction, and the baby’s head rotates to fit through the mother’s pelvis
Breech delivery
- delivery of the baby feet or buttocks first
This stage ends with a period called

when the cervix becomes fully dilated
This is usually the most difficult part of labor to cope with
- open spaces where the bones have not yet joined
Also know as “soft spots”
The bones join around six and eighteen months
- special surgical tongs
Vacuum extractor
- applies suction to the baby’s head during contractions
May be used to guide movement
The uterus continues to contract expelling the umbilical cord and placenta
This is called the afterbirth
This occurs 10 minutes after the baby’s birth
This stage of labor is brief but important
If any parts of the placenta remain, bleeding, infection, and serious illness may result
Baby's umbilical cord is clamped
After the birth the parents may choose to preform a
Surgical removal of the foreskin, the tissue covering the head of the penis
- vaginal discharge after giving birth containing blood, mucus, and uterine tissue
Usually continues 4 to 10 days after childbirth
Cesarean section
: a small incision made in the lower abdomen and uterus where the baby is delivered
Natural childbirth: no medications, relax the body by using breathing techniques
Crouching method: squatting down and letting gravity help deliver the baby- less chance of tearing used in more primitive societies
Birth in water: becoming more popular water helps mom relax and softens the shock of deliver for mom
Home delivery: still common use of midwife to help deliver the baby mom can be relaxed because she is at home with her family only to be used for low risk pregnancies

Most women prefer some kind of anesthesia.
Natural (unmedicated) childbirth is becoming more popular because the anesthesia can make the newborn baby less alert after birth.
is given in the spinal sheath and deadens the patient from the waist down.
A saddle block deadens the area where you ride a saddle.
A paracervical block, also known as a cervical block deadens the cervix.
A pudendal block is given in the pudendal nerve and will numb the whole bottom and legs.
The cervix must dilate to some degree before any anesthesia is given. For this reason, a mother needs to learn some breathing and relaxation techniques
Newborn is placed on mom’s chest to facilitate lifelong emotional ties.
the mother’s first breast milk is given within an hour after birth to newborn. It is rich in antibodies and sometimes thick in consistency.
A method of evaluating a newborn’s physical condition. (rating 0-2 per category)
- term used to describe a newborn child
Five areas: Pulse, breathing, muscle tone, reflex to stimulation, and skin color.
A total scale of 6-10 is considered normal.
Apgar evaluation is given at 1 minute after birth then again at 5 minutes after birth.
Remains a common problem for new moms
The new mother may:
Be more irritable
Cry more easily
Feel sad/confused
May peek 3 to 5 days after delivery and end 10 days after birth
Medical experts believe that changes in hormones after delivery is the cause
If the symptoms last longer than two weeks or worsen, the mother may have postpartum depression
A serious medical condition
Labor and delivery nurses are
employed by hospitals,
clinics and physicians’ offices,
as well as maternity and birthing
Average salary per year $63,000.
Risks on the job
Getting a disease through bodily fluids.
Up to 12 hour shifts day or night shifts;
however, some nurseries offer
8-10 hour shifts.
Prolapsed cord
Poor presentation
Mother too small/baby too big
Placenta abruption
Fetal distress
Previous C-section
Need to be closely monitored in a safe and protected environment
This allows the neonate to continue to develop as if he/she was still in the womb
Since premature babies cannot regulate body temperature well they are placed in radiant warmer for a couple of days
Once stabilized, babies are usually transferred to an

Boxed incubator that protects the baby from temperature fluctuations in the room
Has portholes on the side for medical staff
Labor and Birth | BabyCenter

Apgar Scale: The Movie

Longest stage
Shortest stage
Full transcript