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2011-05 CLS Conference: "Lesson study: Filling the gap in teacher professional development"

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Tom McDougal

on 12 May 2011

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Transcript of 2011-05 CLS Conference: "Lesson study: Filling the gap in teacher professional development"

Level 1: Tell students important basic ideas of mathematics such as facts, concepts, and procedures.


Level 2: Explain the meanings and reasons of the important basic ideas of mathematics in order for students to understand them.


Level 3: Provide students opportunities to understand these basic ideas, and support their learning so that the students become independent learners. Focuses on developing expertise for teaching:
skill at adapting textbook lessons for your students
skill at using different questioning techniques
skill at anticipating your students responses to a task
skill at managing a discussion around the different solutions your students come up with
skill at assessing your students' learning during a lesson Two phases of professional development Listening to experts during special professional development days does not translate into improved teaching. Effective teacher learning must be built into teachers’ daily and weekly schedules. Schools must become the places where teachers, not just students, learn.

Stigler & Hiebert (2009). "Closing the Teaching Gap." 1995 TIMSS Video Study Representative sample of 8th-grade mathematics lessons from Germany (n=100), Japan (n=50) and the United States (n=81). Takahashi, A. (In press). The Japanese approach to developing expertise in using the textbook to teach mathematics rather than teaching the textbook. In Li, Y. & Kaiser, G. (Eds), Expertise in Mathematics Instruction: An international perspective, New York: Springer. Despite massive efforts to improve teaching in the United States, and despite perceptions by many that teaching was, in fact, improving, we found no evidence that anything had changed between 1995 and 1999. Stigler & Hiebert (2009), "Closing the Teaching Gap." Phi Delta Kappan, 91(3). 1999 TIMSS Video Study …[L]earning to teach is as much a cultural activity as is teaching itself. The United States has developed professional development practices for teachers that have become ingrained in the culture. These usually involve professional developers (presumed experts) presenting workshops for teachers during specially designated days during the school year. These professional development practices, just like teaching methods, … [are] accepted as the way things are done, though the results of these practices have produced few changes in teaching. Stigler & Hiebert (2009), "Closing the Teaching Gap." Phi Delta Kappan, 91(3). Lesson Study Principals: Data Developing the research lesson plan Test scores
(e.g. Scantron) Studentwork Observation Research Possible tools, manipulatives, representations Week 0 Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Week 5 The knowledgeable other A thoughtfully-designed lesson plan A post-lesson discussion A live lesson
(the research lesson) "Our students don't seem to understand fractions very well." "That's an awful lot of work
for just one lesson!" Where do you find the time? Reorganized schedule — larger blocks of common planning time

Useless "PD days"

Use PD funds
after school
substitutes—e.g. one team in the morning, one team in the afternoon

Lesson Study Summer Institute! Lesson study enables changes in instruction And yes, lesson study improves test scores Teachers reported changes in collaboration including asking more questions of colleagues, more use of print resources to inform discussions with colleagues, increased discussion of student thinking, and increased interest in observing other teachers and discussing observations. Perry, R. & Lewis, C. (2010, in press). "Building demand for research through lesson study." In M. K. Stein & C. Coburn (Eds.) Research and practice in education: Building alliances, bridging the divide. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishing Group. Data from R. Perry & C. Lewis: In interviews conducted after completion of LS cycles between 2001 and 2005, teachers reported … increased use of tasks that elicit student thinking and support student exploration, more experimentation with … tasks before giving them to students in order to … anticipate student thinking, more discussion and comparison of student solutions in the classroom (including incorrect solutions), more use of student data to inform instruction, and less tendency to “give” students mathematical answers. Lesson study boosts professionalism Lesson study does make a difference But it takes time. For more than a century, observers have been looking into classrooms and emerging with descriptions of how U.S. teachers teach. What is most striking in these observers reports is that the core of teaching—the way in which teachers and students interact about the subject being taught—has changed very little over that time. National Research Council (2001). Adding It Up (p. 48). What is your school's mission? Bertschi School, Seattle, WA

Bertschi School strives to make children confident and creative builders of their future.… [The] students are encouraged to meet academic challenges with openness, enthusiasm, and a willingness to solve problems. We aim for an atmosphere of cooperation, with respect for individual differences and community values. Part 1: There is a gap, and it needs to be filled. Part 2: About lesson study, which fills the gap Part 3: Benefits and logistics Lesson study: Filling the gap in teacher professional development 2011 Chicago Lesson Study Conference
Newberry Math and Science Academy

Tom McDougal
Lesson Study Alliance kyozaikenkyuu Three levels of teaching Sugiyama, Y. (2008). Introduction to elementary mathematics education. Tokyo: Toyokan Publishing Co. "Teaching is a cultural activity." The "birthday party" script Act I: Fun and games
Act II:
Act III:
Act IV:
Act V: The "teaching math" script Act I:
Act II:
Act III:
Act IV:
Act V: The "professional development
day" script Practice, practice practice…with support:
planning a lesson carefully—with colleagues
teaching the lesson
reflecting upon the results—with colleagues Focuses on developing knowledge for teaching:
content knowledge
pedagogical content knowledge
general pedagogical knowledge
knowledge of curriculum.

Examples:
workshops
lectures
videos
journal articles
demonstration lessons Phase 2 Professional Development Phase 1 Professional Development Phase 2 Professional Development Focuses on developing expertise for teaching:
skill at adapting textbook lessons for your students
skill at using different questioning techniques
skill at anticipating your students responses to a task
skill at managing a discussion around the different solutions your students come up with
skill at assessing your students' learning during a lesson What happens when you get back to your classroom? (c) 2011 Lucian Calugarescu/Demotix. Used by permission. But…
What impact will it have on students?
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