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Spanish Grammar

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Klaudia Cwiertka

on 27 June 2013

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Transcript of Spanish Grammar

Spanish Grammar
Nouns
Spanish nouns are masculine or feminine. Here are the most common tips for both types:
Masculine
Feminine
-o
e.g chico - boy
-a
e.g. chica - girl
-consonant
e.g. español - Spanish
-a
e.g. española - Spanish woman
-ista
e.g. pianista - pianist
-ista
e.g. pianista - female pianist
-nte
e.g. estudiante - student
dependiente - salesman
-nte or-nta
e.g. estudiante - student
dependiente - saleswomen
Also feminine nouns are ending with: -d, -z, -ción, -sión,-zón
Exceptions:

Some nouns of Greek origin ending in: -ma are masculine. E.g. sistema-system; clima-climate, etc.
Creating a plural:
Nouns ending in a vowel; add ending: -s
E.g. Zapato (shoe) - zapatos (shoes)
Nouns ending in a consonant; add ending:-es
E.g. dolor (pain) - dolores (pains)
Nouns ending in -í or -ú; add: -es or-s
E.g. esquí (skiing) - esquíes or esquís
Exceptions:

Nouns ending with –z have the ending -ces
E.g. albornoz (bathrobe) - albornoces (bathrobes)

Nouns ending in-s have spelling unchanged E.g. el lunes (Monday) - los lunes (Mondays)

BUT! Frances (French) - franceses (French)
Articles used in spanish
The definite article in English is 'the'. It has four equivalents in Spanish, depending on whether the noun is masculine, feminine, singular or plural:
The 4 forms of the definite article are:
el
masculine singular
la
feminine singular
los
masculine plural
las
feminine plural


In English, the indefinite article is the word "a," "an," or "some". In Spanish, the indefinite article has four forms, depending on whether the noun is masculine, feminine, singular or plural:
The 4 forms of the indefinite article are:
un
masculine singular
una
feminine singular
unos
masculine plural
unas
feminine plural


'Lo' - Neuter Article:
This article, lo, is invariable and is used in front of just about any adjective in order to express something abstract or a quality.
lo fácil -the easy thing, part
lo bueno - the good thing
lo bello - what's beautiful
lo justo - what is just
lo mejor - the best part
Lo + adjective is usually translated in English as The, adjective as thing/part/one/style or What is adjective.
Lo difícil es que no comprendo la diferencia. - The hard thing is that I don't understand the difference.
No viste lo mejor de la película. - You didn't see the best part of the movie.
Lo importante es que estamos juntos. - What's important is that we are together.
Me gusta lo azúl. - I like the blue one.
The construction lo + adjective + que means How adjective:
No sabes lo feliz que estoy - You don't know how happy I am.
Veo lo importante que es - I see how important it is.
Olvidé lo bello que eres - I forgot how beautiful you are.
¿Comprendes lo fácil que es? - Do you understand how easy it is?
Adjectives
If the adjective has a feminine and masculine form, the adjective must agree with the subject it is modifying.
Adjectives which end in "o" have four ending forms:
-o
masculine singular
-os
masculine plural
-aś
feminine
-as
feminine plural

Adjectives which naturally end in "e" or any other vowel (except "0") or which end in consonants have two forms:

The singular form
The plural form

Adjectives which end in "-dor" have four forms



masculine singular "dor"
masculine plural "dores"
feminine singular "dora" (add an "a")
feminine plural "doras"

Position of adjectives in Spanish
When an adjective appears alongside a noun in English, the required order is: adjective + noun.
Spanish, however, allows adjectives to come either before or after the noun.

Certain types of adjective in Spanish which do a job of identifying what is referred to or specifying quantity or volume (rather than describing a noun) usually precede the noun.
Other adjectives describe a noun, attributing a quality to it.
They are normally placed after the noun they describe.

The main principle governing this choice is to do with differentiation:

An adjective following a noun distinguishes that item from others that may have different qualities: secondary as opposed to primary, dangerous as opposed to harmless, Italian not Bulgarian, red rather than green or purple. La casa blanca implies an answer to the question '¿qué casa, la blanca o la azul?'.
Putting an adjective before a noun implies that the quality expressed is naturally associated with that noun. Rather than describing the noun in order to differentiate it from others, the adjective merely attaches an unsurprising epithet to it. La blanca nieve confirms the expected whiteness of the snow: it would be odd to say la nieve blanca, because we don't expect to have to differentiate between white snow and other kinds. If a house has already been described as whitewashed and is referred to again, then la blanca casa might be said (that house, which we all know is white): Vi por última vez la blanca casa de Sevilla en que había pasado toda mi niñez.
Bibliography
http://www.studyspanish.com/lessons/adj1.htm
https://www.dur.ac.uk/m.p.thompson/adjectives.htm
Apocopation of Adjectives
Some adjectives need to be shortened
when they go before, or precede,
a singular and masculine noun. This helps make
both the pronunciation
and flow of the phrase a bit easier.

Bueno - Nico es un buen chico. (Nico is a good guy.)
Santo - Es la iglesia de San Diego (It is Saint Diego’s church.)
Tercero - Pablo es el tercer niño. (Pablo is the third child.)
Malo - No seas un mal amigo (Don´t be a bad friend.)

Not all adjectives are shortened when they precede a singular masculine noun, but the ones that do simply drop the -o ending to form the apócope.
bueno - buen (good)
malo - mal (bad)
postrero - postrer (final, last)
uno - un (one, a)
primero - primer (first)
tercero - tercer (third)
alguno - algún (some)
ninguno - ningún (none)

*Grande is shortened when it precedes both masculine and feminine singular nouns.
Comparatives and Superlatives
Words that compare one thing to another (e.g., better, older) are called comparatives.
Words that put something at the top or bottom of the class, so to speak, (e.g., best, oldest) are called superlatives.
Comparative Translation
mejor que better
peor que worse
mayor que older
menor que younger
Superlative Translation
el / la mejor the best
el / la peor the worst
el / la mayor the oldest
el / la menor the youngest
General principle:
noun + “más” + adjective or adverb + “de” + noun
In Spanish, there’s another way of expressing
how something is just the “most-est.”
You can intensify the meaning of any adjective by adding the ending -ísimo.

Examples:
La comida está riquísima. - The food is super delicious.

El atleta corrió rapidísimo en la competencia. - The athlete ran super fast in the competition.

La noche estuvo heladísima. - The night was super cold.
Comparatives and Superlatives (continued)
You can also use comparatives to describe how similar two things are
.
Use 'tan … como' for “as … as” when the characteristic in common is an adjective or adverb.
Use tanto … como for “as many … as” or “as much … as,” when the characteristic in common is a noun.
Examples:
Eres tan amable como tu hermana
Tengo tanto dinero como él.
Some more ways to compare:
más que = more (or greater) than
menos que = less (or fewer) than
Demonstrative adjectives are those adjectives whose function is to point at something
Demonstrative
Singular masculine
•este (this)
•ese (that)
•aquel (that)
Plural masculine
•estos (these)
•esos (those)
•aquellos (those)
Singular feminine
•esta (this)
•esa (that)
•aquella (that)
Plural feminine
•estas (these)
•esas (those)
•aquellas (those)
Examples:
•Me gusta este perro - I like this dog.
•Prefiero estas computadoras - I prefer these computers.
•Voy a comprar ese coche - I'm going to buy that car.
•Me gustan aquellas casas - I like those houses.
Indefinites
Indefinite adjectives are a loosely defined group of non-descriptive adjectives that are used to refer to nouns whose specific identity isn't made.
Like most other adjectives, indefinite adjectives match the nouns they refer to in both number and gender.
Here are the most common indefinite adjectives :
algún, alguna, algunos, algunas — some, a few, any;
cada — each, every;
cierto, cierta, ciertos, ciertas — certain, specific;
cualquier, cualquiera — any, whatever, whichever, whoever, whomever;
ningún, ninguna — no, not any;
otro, otra, otros, otras — another, other;
todo, toda, todos, todas — each, every, all, all of;
varios, varias — severa
Some of these adjectives can be translated as "any,"
the English word "any" is often left untranslated into Spanish.
Possessive Adjectives (short form)
Possessive adjectives are used to show ownership.
E.g. mi libro - my book; tu pluma - your pen
There are five possessive adjectives:

mi
tu
su
nuestro
vuestro


mis
tus
sus
Two possessive adjectives (nuestro and vuestro) have four forms:

nuestro
nuestra
nuestros
nuestras

vuestro
vuestra
vuestros
vuestras

Possessive Adjectives (long form)
Long form is used after nouns.
mío, mía, míos, mías — my, of mine;
tuyo, tuya, tuyos, tuyas — your (singular familiar), of yours;
suyo, suya, suyos, suyas — your (singular or plural formal), its, his, her, their, of yours, of his, of hers, of theirs;
nuestro, nuestra, nuestros, nuestras — our, of ours;
vuestro, vuestra, vuestros, vuestras — your (plural familiar), of yours;

Generally, there is little or no difference in meaning between the long and short forms of the possessive.
http://spanish.about.com/od/adjectives/a/lo
ng_form_possessive_adjectives.htm
http://www.123teachme.com/learn_spanish/spanish_possessive_adjectives
http://www.studyspanish.com/lessons/possadj.htm
By Klaudia Cwiertka
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