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Rome, Han, Gupta Comparison
Miranda Ellison 2 October 2012
Transcript of Rome, Han, Gupta Comparison
Miranda Ellis Political Institutions
and Control Economic Vitaality and Trade Religious Belief System Intellectual and Technological Advancements Artistic Endeavors and Cultural Tastes Social Class Breakdown and Power of the People. Decline of the Empire Rome
Gupta Rome Han Gupta Women were excluded by law from any political role. Roman Republic Senate- the most important legislative body.
-composed of mainly aristocrats. Consuls- shared primary executive power *Aristocracy Han Dynasty Maintained previously established Qin government
Feudal structures and central bureaucracy
Emperor was head of government
Divided country into 12 provinces ruled by emperor appointed officials Han Dynasty - Economy Western expansion allowed for the development of the Silk Road
-Many luxury items, inventions, and religions moved east-west
Lowered taxes on peasants
Growth of agriculture due to more efficient iron tools Han Dynasty - Religion Ancestor worship still practiced
Buddhism introduced from India
Confucianism established as basis for government conduct Confucianism in the
Han Dynasty Established a Confucian state
Government officials had to go through Confucian training
Schools set up to teach Confucian ideals Han Dynasty -
Social Classes Emperor - absolute power Farmers and Peasants Artisans/Craftsmen/Merchants Nobles/Government Officials/Scholars Relyed on laws to hold their empire together. Valued political participation, appropriate political ethics, duties of the citizens, political speaking skills, incorruptible service. Didn't create a significant, world-class religion Excelled at constructing buildings, elaborate strong arches, domes, roads and aqueducts. The cost of the empire was large, so trade helped to cover the expenses. *vital Built roads and used the Mediterranean and Black Seas for trade routes. Romans imported a whole variety of materials: beef, corn, glassware, iron, lead, leather, marble, olive oil, perfumes, purple dye, silk, silver, spices, timber, tin and wine Ancient Roman Trade Main trading partners included Spain, France, the Middle East and North Africa Rome exported wine olive oil, pottery and papyrus. Social class determined economic and political opertunities, legal rights, benefits and pennalties. Large gap between low class and high class, not much of a middle class. Women belonged to the social classes of their fathers and then husbands. Roman Social Classes Invention of concrete, roman roads, roman arches, and aqueducts. Huge public health programs including welfare programs for the poor Roman language (Latin), the root of all
the romance languages including English, French, and Spanish Roman Invention Colorful and decorative. It mainly indicated the wealth and status of the subject. Art was supposed to tell future generations of the greatness of Rome. Architecture, painting, mosaic work and sculpture were the prominent art forms of ancient Rome. Roman Arts and Culture Decline of Rome Civil wars in parts of the empire further weakened the rule of Rome and respect for Roman law dwindled as a result. The empire was too large to govern effectively. Prices increased, trade decreased The population was shrinking due to starvation and disease. That made it difficult to manage farms and government effectively.
The Empire starting shrinking. The Huns, Visigoths, Franks, Vandals, Saxons and other barbarian tribes overran the empire. The ancient Romans tried to solve
some of their problems by splitting the
Roman Empire in half to make the
empire easier to manage. Each side had
The Western Roman Empire did not do
well. Instead of getting stronger, they
became weaker. By 400 AD, it was pretty
much over. Polytheistic Believed that their gods had
great influence over their daily
lives and fates Religious tolerance was a policy among the emperors, this cemented and united the empire Ancient Roman Religion Romans could worship whoever they liked as long as it didn't interfere with loyalty to Rome. Gupta Religion Buddhism and Hinduism were widely prevalent.
Rulers showed religious tolerance Achievements Numerical System which is still used today The concept of zero and the decimal system based on the number 10. Astrological discoveries such as rotation around the sun, the fact that earth is round, and solar and lunar eclipses. Weak rulers and a series of invasions. Decline of the Gupta Empire Arts and Culture Much of the art was based on religion. Created stronger and more permanent temples. Sculpture Agriculture formed a significant part of the empire’s economy Goods were transported via animals and waterways. The textile industry was an
essential industry of this empire. Exported goods included silk,
muslin, calico, linen, wool and
cotton The Guptas imported Chinese silk and ivory from East Africa. Economy Began after the death of Chandragupta II Gupta Empire - Political Institutions Provided a period of stability
Rulers would intermarry to reduce internal fighting for power
Military conquests expanded the empire's influence Gupta Empire
Social Classes Followed Caste System:
Untouchables Castes were very strict! Han Dynasty
Technology and Intellect Credited with the invention of a paper making process, weaving loom, and seismograph.
First written record of Chinese history created - "Records of the Great Historian"
Technology and Intellect Sanskrit literature grew - especially poetry
Knowledge of atstronomy - eclipses
Invention of zero and decimal system
Calculated pi and beginning algebra
Art and Culture Invention of porcelain
- beautiful ceramics and pottery
Created a highly intellectual society
Fall of the Han Dynasty Internal struggle for power among family
Outside invasions (Huns)
The Han Dynasty ruled for over 200 years.