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Gardner & Lambert's theories of Language Learning Motivation
Transcript of Gardner & Lambert's theories of Language Learning Motivation
Learn more about the language group, engaging in the community
Proposed by Gardner and Smythe (1975)
Extension of theoretical interpretations provided by Lambert (1963, 1967, 1974) and Carroll (1962)
Based on three elements: effort spent, motivation to achieve, enjoying the task.
Attitude/Motivation Test Battery (AMTB)
Original: Integrative orientation, attitudes toward the target language community, and an interest in foreign languages.
Later extended version: Evaluation of teachers, and the evaluation of the course.
Extract from the AMTB
Theory refinement & limitations
Gardner’s work has been continually expanded on by other researchers adding new components:
attribution about past successes/failures
need for achievement
self-confidence and classroom goal structures
Biased sample: The majority of research was conducted in Canada which is both bilingual and bicultural
Focus on social milieu (environment) rather than foreign language classrooms
The overall aim, purpose or direction of the language learning
Gardner and Smythe's Model of Motivation (1975)
Dörnyei, Z. (1994). Motivation and motivating in the foreign language classroom. The Modern Language Journal, 78(3), 273-284.
Dörnyei, Z. (1998). Motivation in second and foreign language learning. Language Teaching, 31(3), 117-135.
Dörnyei, Z. (2003). Attitudes, orientations, and motivations in language learning: Advances in theory, research, and applications. Language Learning, 53(S1), 3-32.
Gardner, R. C. (2006). The socio-educational model of second language acquisition: A research paradigm. Eurosla Yearbook, 6(1), 237-260.
Gardner, R. C. (2011). The Socio-Educational Model of Second Language Acquisition. Canadian Issues / Thèmes Canadiens, 24-27.
Gardner, R. C., & Lambert, W. E. (1959). Motivational variables in second-language acquisition. Canadian Journal of Psychology/Revue canadienne de psychologie, 13(4), 266.
Hummel, K. M. (2012). Motivation and second language acquisition: the socio-educational model. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 33(3), 317-319.
Masgoret, A. M., & Gardner, R. C. (2003). Attitudes, Motivation, and Second Language Learning: A Meta–Analysis of Studies Conducted by Gardner and Associates. Language Learning, 53(1), 123-163.
Tremblay, P. F., & Gardner, R. C. (1995). Expanding the motivation construct in language learning. The Modern Language Journal, 79(4), 505-518.
University of Western Ontario. Dept. of Psychology. (1973). Motivation and second-language acquisition. London [Ont]: Department of Psychology, University of Western Ontario
Linguistic aptitude was believed to be the main influence on language acquisition.
In 1959, Gardner and Lambert's motivation theories were first developed.
Main motivation theories:
Attitude/Motivation Test Battery
interest in foreign languages and willingness to interact with the second language community
Attitudes towards the learning situation:
Teacher and course
the effort and attitude towards learning
Motivation is a multifaceted phenomena and cannot be completely captured
Source of motivation is not identified
"integrativeness is not equally important for second-language achievement in classroom-based 'foreign' instruction outside Canada” Crookes and Schmidt, 1991