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Transcript of School Uniforms
Uniforms Make Schools Better?
1987- First Elementary School to implement the first publicized uniform policy
-The number of schools with mandatory uniform policies in the elementary schools today is 15 times what is was in 1980's
- Uniform policies are expanding across all levels of k-12 education
-The movement continues to grow in popularity with administrators and parents
What's all the Hype?
"The last forty years in public education has seen many changes in school dress. Students are generally permitted in most present day public schools to choose what to wear to school with limited restraints. At the same time, as most school districts allow students all this freedom, schools are viewed by the public as a panacea for the ills of society. Schools are expected to solve all of America’s social, economic, and political problems (Perkinson, 1995.) Yet with this freedom, schools are also expected to operate a well-disciplined, structured environment that is conducive to learning."
Why implement uniforms?
Why implement clothing choice?
Wearing uniforms significantly
improved attendance rates for
middle and high school students,
Studies show that students' perception of school climate is improved by wearing school uniforms because they feel as though they are part of a team. Students "fit in" because they look like everybody else.
Numerous studies conclude that safety in schools will be improved and violence would decrease. Factors include the number of gang related clothing being eliminated and crimes such as theft of expensive clothing/accessories being reduced.
Uniforms Undermine Diversity and Student Individuality
Some studies suggest that by implementing uniforms, students' freedom of expression will be effected negatively. If each individual is wearing the same outfit, diversity is not welcomed, and therefore the students can not express themselves.
No Direct Effect on Drug Use or Behavior
"Student uniform use is not significantly correlated with any of the school commitment variables of absenteeism, behavior, or substance use (drugs). In addition, students who wear uniforms do not appear to have any significantly higher or lower academic preparedness, pro-school attitudes, or peer group structures with pro-school attitudes."
Lack of evidence for Less Violence
No consistent or sustainable change to crime, violence incidents, and numbers of suspensions were found with the use of school uniforms.
No correlation between uniforms & academic achievement
Imberman and Gentile, 2013
Studies show that many
students are preoccupied
with how they look and what they wear instead of their studies. Uniforms would help this problem.
Brunsma and Rockquemore, 1997
"There is absolutely no evidence documenting even a correlation between dress codes and better test scores, let alone a causal connection."
No clear-cut conclusions
What are the solutions?
Who is Involved?
Need to voice opinions
Each student is unique
Need to have active role in decisions
Collaboration is key!
Most contact with students in schools
Need to measure through observation effects of uniforms on students
Evaluation of students in the community
Uniformed vs. Non-uniformed students
What are the roles of the individuals who are involved in the decisions and discussions that are made about school uniforms?
Familiar with latest research
Research their own schools
Understand what works best for their students and families
No overwhelming evidence
Public school uniforms has increased over the years.
Uniforms will continue to be a debate until more thorough research is conducted
Uniform & academic achievement studies are inconclusive.
Brunsma, D.L. & Rockquemore, K.A. (1998). Effects of Student Uniforms on Attendance, Behavior Problems, Substance Use, and Academic Achievement. Journal of Educational Research, 92(1), 53-62. http://ezproxy.neu.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct= ue&db=eric&AN=EJ576443&site=ehost-live&scope=site
CNN (Interviewer) & Nadine Strossen (Interviewee). (1999). Why the ACLU opposes school dress codes (Interview transcript) Retrieved from http://edition.cnn.com/2001/COMMUNITY/08/28/strossen.cnna/
DaCosta, K. (2006). Dress Code Blues: An Exploration of Urban Students’ Reactions
to a Public High School Uniform Policy. The Journal of Negro Education, 75(1), 49-59. http://www.jstor.org.ezproxy.neu.edu/stable/40026503
Eppinger, R. (2014, March 14). SCHOOL UNIFORMS: Does What Students Wear Really Make A Difference? Retrieved September 27, 2014, from http://www.newfoundations.com/PracEthics/Eppinger.html
Firmin, M., Smith, S., & Perry, L. (2006). School Uniforms: A Qualitative Analysis of Aims and Accomplishments at Two Christian Schools. Journal of Research on Christian Education, 15(2), 143-168. http://ezproxy.neu.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=tr
Gentile, E., & Imberman, S. (2009, March 4). Dressed for Success: Do School Uniforms Improve Student Behavior, Attendance, and Achievement? (Working Paper) Retrieved September 26, 2014, from http://www.uh.edu/econpapers/RePEc/hou/wpaper/2009-03.pdf
Gouge, W. (2011, July 1). A COMPARISON RESEARCH STUDY ON THE USE OF SCHOOL UNIFORMS AND GRADUATION, ATTENDANCE, AND SUSPENSION RATES IN EAST TENNESSEE. Retrieved September 26, 2014, from http://digitalcommons.liberty.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1471&cont xt=doctoral
Howe, H. (1996). School Uniforms: Leaning Toward the Spartans and Away From the Athenians. Education Week, 15(28). http://connection.ebscohost.com/c/editorials/9604162944/leaning toward-spartans-away-from-athenians
Johnson, W. S. (2010). Analyses of the impact of school uniforms on violence in north carolina public high schools. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.neu.edu/login?url=http://search.proquest.com/docview/7 3512261?accountid=12826. (753512261)
Kraft, J. (2003, August 1). SOCIETY’S PERCEPTIONS AND ATTITUDES TOWARD SCHOOL UNIFORMS. Retrieved September 28, 2014, from http://core.kmi.open.ac.uk/download/pdf/5066341.pdf
Kaiser, S. B. (1985). The social psychology of clothing and personal adornment. New York: Macmillan
LaPoint, V. (1992). The Role of Dress Codes, Uniforms in Urban Schools,” NASSP
McDaniel, J. (1996, September 1). Can Uniforms Save Schools? Reader's Digest.
Sanchez, J.E., Yoxsimer, A., & Hill, G.C. (2012). Uniforms in the Middle School: Student Opinions, Discipline Data, and School Police Data. Journal of School Violence, 11(4), 345-356. http://ezproxy.neu.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=tue&db=eric&AN=EJ978349&site=ehost-live&scope=site
Stanley, S. (1996). School Uniforms and Safety. Education and Urban Society, 28(4), 424-435. Retrieved October 13, 2014, from http://eus.sagepub.com.ezproxy.neu.edu/content/28/4/424
Yeung, R. (2009). Are School Uniforms a Good Fit?: Results From the ECLS-K and the NELS. Educational Policy, 23(6), 847-874. Retrieved September 30, 2014, from http://epx.sagepub.com/content/23/6/847
West, C.K., Tidwell, D.K., Bomba, A.K., & Elmore, P.A. (1999). Attitudes of Parents about School Uniforms. Journal of Family and Consumer Sciences: From Research to Practice, 91(2), 92-96. http://ezproxy.neu.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=tr
All images were downloaded from Google Search. These images are free to use through the Creative Commons Generic License agreement.
School Uniforms vs. Dress Codes
Relationship between key players
More present day research!
Many studies are outdated
What Do Parents Think?
Do not limit expression or individuality
Are cheaper than regular clothes
Create a climate conductive to learning
Promote Spirit of School pride
West, 1999, p. 94
"Uniforms will help children focus on education rather than peer pressure."
Parent Survey Comments
"Wearing uniforms would eliminate the children of both sexes from dressing provocatively."
"Wearing uniforms discourages cliques."
West, 1999, p.94
Parent Survey Comments
"I would encourage disobedience of a uniform dress code."
"Uniforms further enforce socialist or
communist form of government!"
"Just not necessary!"
West, 1994, p.94
Student Opinion- Middle School
12.7% liked wearing uniforms
87.3% did NOT like uniforms
Issues at School
15% reported drugs
20% reported bullying
20% reported gang activity
26% reported violence
34% reported teasing
Sanchez, 2012, p. 353
School Discipline Effects
Decrease in police logs from 200 the year prior to implementation of uniforms, to 75 the next year (63% reduction).
Gang related reports decreased from 12 to 4
Graffiti decreased from 26 to 2
Property damage decreased from 10 to 1
Threats decreased from 18 to 4
Battery decreased from 25 to 3
Adminstrative assists decreased from 17 to 5
Survey results after implementation of uniforms indicated...
Less class disruption (81.5%)
Improved student behavior (95.4%)
Increased student cooperation (78.4%)
Improved student attitude (90.7%)
Increased work ethic (78.4%)
Fewer playground fights (73.9%)
Fewer suspensions (57%)
Fewer dress code violations (83%)
Increased cooperation among students (53.8%)
Small increase in student courtesy (47.7%)
Stanley, 1996, p. 432
Han, 2003, p. 7
Hesapcioglu & Meseci, 2009, p. 1745
Private schools uniforms defined status
Public schools provided equalizing effect for the poor who otherwise came to school looking underprivileged.
Firmin, 2006, p. 153
Sanchez, 2012, p. 350
Uniforms have pros and cons. Administrators need to decide what is the best approach for their particular district.