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The Scientific Revolution

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by

Brian Campbell

on 16 October 2013

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Transcript of The Scientific Revolution

The Scientific Revolution
Big Questions
1. Why might people have difficult accepting new ideas or ways of thinking?

2. What are the risks of embracing a different idea? What are some risks of always refusing to do so?
Truth before 1500
Greek and Roman texts
The Bible and Church
Truth comes from:
The Medieval View of the World
Aristotle's Geocentric Theory:
The earth is the center of the universe

A New Way of Thinking
Based on:
Careful observation
A willingness to question accepted beliefs
How it Spread
Age of Exploration:
Discovery of new unknown lands and people
Fueled research in astronomy and math
Navigators needed better instruments
Copernicus Sparks a Revolution
Nicolaus Copernicus
Polish cleric and astronomer
Curious about the universe
Developed the Heliocentric Theory
"Sun-Centered" theory
Copernicus
Feared scholars and clergy
Published findings in 1543, last year of his life
After Copernicus
Tycho Brahe recorded movement of planets
Johannes Kepler proved planetary orbits are elliptical with math
Galileo Galilei
Italian
Built telescope in 1609
Supported Copernicus's ideas
The sun has dark spots, the moon's surface is rough
Galileo and the Church
Galileo's ideas scared the church
If the Church was wrong about this...what else were they wrong about?
Galileo published a book in 1632
Angry Pope called him before the inquisition
Galileo on Trial
In 1633, Confesses under threat of torture

House arrest until death in 1642
"With sincere heart and unpretended faith I abjure, curse, and detest the aforesaid errors and heresies [of Copernicus] and also every other error...contrary to the Holy Church, and I swear that in the future I will never again say or assert...anything that might cause a similar suspicion toward me."
-Galileo, 1633
The Scientific Method
Scientific Method
1. Observation
2. Question
3. Hypothesis
4. Experiment
5. Analysis/Conclusion
Francis Bacon
English statesman
Urged people to break from Aristotle
Promoted "Empiricism", or experimental method
Rene Descartes
French
Linked Algebra and Geometry
Relied on math and logic, not experiments
Everything should be doubted until proven with evidence
"I think, therefore I am"
Isaac Newton
Studied math and physics
Confident in gravity by age 26
Theory of Gravity published in 1687
The Revolution Spreads
1590- First microscope invented
1670s- Bacteria and red blood cells observed
1643- First mercury barometer (weather)
1715- Gabriel Fahrenheit invents first thermometer

Medicine and Chemistry
Andreas Vesalius
Studied corpses
1543, Published detailed drawings of human organs, bones, and muscles

Edward Jenner
Developed the first vaccine to prevent smallpox
Used cowpox to create the "innoculation"

Robert Boyle
Founder of modern chemistry
Challenged Aristotle's belief in only 4 elements
Full transcript