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Transcript of AFGHANISTAN
Elena Hoyos, Susana Namen, Sara Palacio, Maria Peñalosa and Laura Soto
ANCIENT & MODERN HISTORY
Politics in Afghanistan
Population: 31,3 million people.
Total Area: 647,500 km² ( Almost half of colombia's area)
Currency: Afghany (AFN) = $1.00 AFN = $0.02 USD $1.00 AFN = $48.9 COL
Income per capita: 666.3 USD (total income of a country divided by its total population)
Some key Facts:
Afghanistan's economy is recovering from decades of conflict.
The economy has improved significantly since the fall of the Taliban regime in 2001 mostly because of the interference of international assistance.
Recovery of the agricultural sector and the service sector growth.
Afghanistan is extremely poor, landlocked, and absolutly dependent on foreign help.
Highly dependent on agriculture
The majority of the population continues to suffer from shortage of:
2). Clean water.
4). Medical care
Theres a remarkable weak government
Afghan Government's difficulty in guarantee the accomplishment of the law in all the country
Criminality and insecurity are out of control
Lack of infrastructure
Afghanistan's living standards are among the lowest in the world.
The international community help in a big way with the development of the country with generous donations.
The percentage of the population with access to electricity in Afghanistan is among the lowest in the world. About 30% of Afghans have access to electricity
World Bank. (2015). Overview. Retrieved on 11-09-15, from http://www.worldbank.org/en/country/afghanistan/overview#1
CIA World Factbook. (2015).
Afghanistan Economy - overview.
Retrieved on 11-09-15, from http://www.indexmundi.com/afghanistan/economy_overview.html
World Bank. (2015).
GDP per capita
. Retrieved on 11-09-15, from http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GDP.PCAP.CD/countries/AF?display=default
Imagen taken from, http://www.portaldelcampo.cl/medios/noticias/325370-2.jpg
Image taken from, https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b9/Socio-Economic_Status_of_Pakistanis.png
Image taken from, https://s-media-cache-ak0.pinimg.com/originals/9e/0a/18/9e0a188dc617392eda0a29830c8fa937.jpg
Cruickshank, D. (n.d.). Afghanistan: At the Crossroads of Ancient Civilisations. Retrieved on September 10, 2015 from http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/recent/sept_11/afghan_culture_01.shtml
History world.(n.d.). History of Afghanistan. Retrieved on September 10, 2015 from http://www.historyworld.net/wrldhis/PlainTextHistories.asp?historyid=ad09
Afghanistan Online. (n.d.).Chronological History of Afghanistan. Retrieved on September 10, 2015 from http://www.afghan-web.com/history/chron/
Image taken from,http://mhinnovation.net/sites/default/files/styles/large/public/images/innovation/201202230700590975%20IRIN%20Afghanistan.jpg?itok=ZIweSxvz
image taken from, http://newsimg.bbc.co.uk/media/images/46158000/gif/_46158664_afghan_mortality_466.gif
Asian Center. (2014).
Afghanistan - Religion
. Retrieved on 16-09-15, from http://asia.isp.msu.edu/wbwoa/central_asia/afghanistan/religion.htm
Image taken from http://www.catholic-convert.com/wp-content/uploads/cc_bibel_koran_DW__1248576p.jpg
About-Afghanistan. (2011). Sunni Muslims. Retrieved on 16-09-15, from http://www.about-afghanistan.com/sunni-muslims.html
Aghanistan was the
3000 years ago
Alexander the Great
back in 300 BC
It was the
of chinese, indian and european civilizations,
At the beginning of the first milenium, the
passed through the central part of the country carrying
comerce, culture and religion
between western and eastern civilisations.
invade the region, and introduce
, giving way to the
the area until
, when it was now conquered by the
, head of
takes over Kandahar
, second largest city in Afghanistan
: Nadir Shah is murdered, letting Afghans retake Kandahar, and
establish modern Afghanistan.
As time goes by...
Ahmad Shah Durrani
of Afghanistan, after
Nadir Shah´s death.
Afghanistan is know a
Kabul is taken by the
, which has
as their leader
After a civil war, Dost Mohammed is declared as the
new leader of the nation
In 2001, after the fall of the Taliban, 43% of boys have acces to education and 3% of girls.
There were only about 21,000 teachers for a school-age population of more than 5 million, 240 students per teacher.
Since 2002, access to education has increased from 1 million to 8.2 million.
Girls education opportunity increased from 191,000 to more than 3.75 million.
Majority of the teachers received teaching training to upgrade their abilities and the quality of education.
The Afghan health system has been improving during the past decade thanks to the government public health policies.
Stadistics (between 2003 and 2011) show significant declines in maternal and child mortality.
Despite these improvements Afghan health indicators remain below average for low income countries
Afghanistan has one of the highest levels of child malnutrition in the world.
Respect comes with age for both men and women.
Patriarchal (led by males) ---> but women are highly revered (loved) and central to family life.
Women achieve respect and status by becoming mothers.
Typically friendly and hospitable, but also be hard because of the U.S. standards.
is interested in developing
They need a
in Afghanistan (country with the
easiest acces to Britains Indian Empire)
To have in mind*
finds himself in the
of both sides (Russian-British).
find out, and immediately
break off negotiations
with the Afghan country
Considered an obligation.
Divorce is rare and disapproved.
Arranged by the family.
First contact the bride and groom have with anyone of the opposite sex who is not related to them.
Polygamy is allowed if all the wives are treated equally.
First Anglo- Afghan War
Great deal of celebration at a child’s birth (especially if it's a boy).
Boy turns 7 he is considered a man.
No equivalent ceremony for girls ---> age of 9 or 10 are expected to have learned the skills needed to run a home.
By the age of 16 girls are considered old enough to marry.
are from now on
Brtish decide to
Second Anglo- Afghan war
Provide for their families.
Being a homosexual is punishable by death.
Expected to be disciplinarians and providers for aged parents.
Participate in politics and relationships with outsiders.
Responsible for protecting the honour of the family.
Roles: stress motherhood, child socialization and family development.
Usually less educated than men.
Have many babies (preferably boys).
Generally do not work outside the home.
Restricted to socializing with female relatives.
Maintaining a good reputation is important.
Dress and Appereance
, leader of the Afghan´s by the time,
demands international recognition
of Afghanistan´s full
the country for the
Britain acknowledges Afghanistan as an
Hijab: covering the head that is tied firmly under the chin. The face may be exposed or covered except for the eyes. This is the most popular substitute for the more extreme burka that was required under Taliban rule.
Burka: mandatory under taliban rule. Purpose is to ensure modesty.
Under control of husband or Talibans.
Prefer to keep their dress simple: consists of a knee length shirt with sandals and a cap or turban.
Every village has 3 sources of authority:
Malik: village headman and landowner.
Mishr: their input is highly respected in decision-making.
Mullah: leader of Islamic values and teachings.
Played on horseback.
Goal: grab a headless goat on the ground and then get it clear of the other players and pitch it across a goal line or into a target circle.
reigns the country during
Decides to take a
His decision brings
to the country
Beginning of the century
Constitutional Reform in
Afghanistan becomes a
Competing teams that build and “fight” kites for large audiences. The last kite in the sky winns.
Is enjoyed by children and adults alike (men).
takes control over the country by a
. Becomes prime minister
Islam is practiced by the majority of Afghans.
Obligation: pray five times a day
Society is stratified along religious and ethnic lines.
Social stratification: expressed primarily through marriage patterns.
The wedding indicates an status and wealth (prosperity).
4 ethnic groups: Pashtun, Tajic, Uzbek, Hazara.
Women and men will never shake hands or speak directly to one another.
They should avoid eye contact and touching between them.
Afghans have loyalty to their respective clans and tribes.
Food is generally shared by everyone from the same dish. They sit on the floor and eat with their hands.
New constitution: Daud Khan becomes
1919 - 1929 ---> King Amanullah tried to promote female empowerment.
Many women were able to study in universities.
This trend was reversed by the Taliban. Now, women face overwhelming obstacles if they seek to work or study or obtain access to basic health care.
Afghanistan is a country divided in tribal and ethnic groups
Most Afghans have something in common, the islamic religion
Differences and variations in the practice of it
Afghans, in their majority, are all Muslims
Islam reached Afghanistan in the early 6th century
In 9th century, the conquest of the Northern Afghanistan, followed by the conquest of Ghazni, that later became one of the capitals of the Islamic world.
Over 99% of Afghans are Muslims. The majority (about 80%) are Sunnis; the remaining 19% are Shi'a.
The sacred Quran
Beliefs and actions
5 main pillars
Profession of faith: "There is no God but Allah, and Muhammad is his Prophet"
Division of Islam in two: Sunnis and Shias (began with political dispute over who had the right to succeed Muhammad)
Follow the traditional way of the prophet Muhammad. Traditional formal Islam
Quran is their source for knowledge as are the Hadith
The Sunni's follow Sharia law (Islamic law), based on both the Quran and the commandments of the prophet
They have no clerical hierarchy; each individual is in a personal relationship with God and needs no intermediary of any kind
Disagree with the Sunni interpretation of Islam
The first and true successor to Muhammad, was Ali
The Imamate came to be seen as a gift from God to humanity (Imams were Islamic leaders)
Imams have secret knowledge of God because they were created before the creation
The 12th Imam disappeared as a child, and Afghans believe he is hiding and is still alive on earth, waiting for the proper time to return and restore Shi'a
-Daud´s government is overthrown
is given to two political parties:
(the people´s party)
(the Banner party)
Mystical branch of Islam but they are not separated from the Sunni and Shi'a.
Sufis were disillusioned in the search for Truth
Want a more personal connection with God
Variety of methods to achieve that special connection
Sufi religious life centers around the teachings of a religious leader (shakyh) to students along the path that leads to private moments with God
Sufis are famous for describing their personal experiences within artistic fields, such as poetry.
FUN FACT: Sufi poetry is world famous even nowadays.
supress anti-communist anarchy
Osama bin Laden
against the Soviet occupiers
Islam as political force
Amir Abdur Rahman, used Islam in his attempt to unify the tribes of Afghanistan and proclaimed that all laws must comply with Islamic law
This enhanced the role of the religious community leaders, as they became servants of the state, their religious role and function was weakened.
Islam remained central to the state but the religious establishment functioned as a moral rather than as a political influence
Afghanistan becomes a
Republic of Afghanistan
Means that it is governed by a combination between the shariah law (islamic law), state legislation and local customary law
Lack of clarity regarding the law
Period until 1920's
After a period of invasions and kingdoms since Alexander the great defeated the Persians and conquered the land, Afghanistan emerged as a nation in the mid-nineteenth century
There was no state controlled court system until 1920
Since then, Islamic law was reiterated
Reign of Amir Abduk Rahman's
Three types of rules stated then are still present today
Board of Commerce
Force and influence of religious organizations
End to brutal forms of physical punishment
Better education based on the french model
During WWI-->aligned with the british
From 1920's to 1965
Slavery was formally abolished
Campaigns for reconciliation between Sunnis and Shi'as.
1923-->afghanistan's first formal written constitution. (modern)
1925-->code based on sharia principles
More educated sociaty, less mullah power
1931-->new constitution (traditionalist)
Strict implementation of the sharia
Censorship of press
Exchange of ideals between the memebers of the afghan elite
Improved relations with USA
Constitution 1931 in order to mantained the prominent position of sharia
Development of economy with help of the soviet union and the USA
Constitution of 1964
The nation's third constitution
Division of power
Separation of political powers
Communism and Republic (1965-1985)
People's democratic party of afghanistan
"A Criminal Procedural Code was enacted in 1965; it consisted of 500 articles addressing in particular the arrest, detention, interrogation, and trial of the accused. The code also covered the implementation of punishments, the temporary duration of imprisonment, and the differentiation between the role of the police and prosecutors and the supervision of their duties and responsibilities. It is not entirely clear whether this new Code was inspired by Soviet law. In any case, it signified the introduction of a secular piece of legislation, which brought the Afghan legal system closer to Western legal traditions." (Yassari, n.d)
After the soviet invasion in 1979
1973-1978: The creation of the Republic of Afghanistan
1978-1985: The Saur-Revolution, and Soviet invasion
The period from 1985 until 2001: From civil war to democracy
1985-1992: Afghan civil war
1992-2001: The Taliban and the rise of fundamentalism
2001-present: Democracy and the future of Afghanistan
Law of personal
International treaty obligations and human rights