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Transcript of Ambrym Volcano
1996-2014, 1994, 1991, 1990, 1989, 1988, 1986, 1984-86, 1983, 1981, 1980, 1979, 1977, 1973-76, 1972, 1971, 1967-70, 1964-66, 1963, 1961-63, 1960, 1959, 1958, 1957, 1955, 1954, 1953, 1952, 1950-51, 1942, 1938, 1937, 1935-36, 1929, 1915, 1913-14, 1912, 1910, ?1909, 1908, 1898, 1894-95, 1888, 1886, 1884, 1883, 1871, ?1870, 1863-64, 1820?, 1774, 50 AD.
Ambrym is a large basaltic volcano with a 12 km wide caldera. It is not only one of the most active volcanoes of Vanuatu, but one of the most active in the world. The island of Ambrym is part of the Republic of Vanuatu, and is located approximately 2,200 kilometers northeast of Australia.
Summit elevation 1334 m
Pyroclastic Shield Volcano
By: Charlie Sullins
Risks of Ambrym
How Ambrym erupts
The Vanuatu archipelago is located near the boundaries of the Pacific and the Australian tectonic plates. Ambrym is located on the western edge of the Pacific Ring of Fire an area known for seismic activity. The Australian plate is being subducted beneath the Pacific plate at a rate of 9 mm a year, making the area highly prone to earthquakes. As it sinks into the Earth's interior it is heated, and partially melts. Some of the melted material rises through the overlying Pacific Plate as magma, forming the volcanoes.
There have been 48 eruptions recorded since 1774.
Fifteen eruptions have produced lava flows.
Ten eruptions involved a lava lake.
Ambrym has been constantly erupting since 1996, but generally only registers 0-1 on the VEI scale.
It is currently oozing a slow lava flow from within the caldera.
Ambrym Island is a large shield volcano. This means that it developed slowly into a flat dome shape as lava flows collected on top of already cooled lava. The caldera, or crater, was formed over 1,900 years ago by an eruption with an estimated volcanic explosivity index (VEI) of approximately 6. This force is 10 times bigger than Mt. St. Helens. This level of force caused the collapse which resulted in the caldera.
The word "caldera" comes from the Latin word caldaria which means cauldron or cooking pot.
Ambrym is sometimes called the "black island" because of the large ash plain.
Most of the eruptions during the last 200 years have been explosive. The majority of them have come from a central vent, but a few have been from lateral vents.
Explosive eruptions are also referred to as Plinian eruptions after Pliny the Elder who was killed when Mt. Vesuvius erupted. These eruptions occur when magma is full of gas. The explosion is forced straight up and can be twice the speed of sound. They can reach 20 miles high. These eruptions leave large amounts of ash. The Ash Plain of Ambrym was formed by these type of eruptions.
Happened during two different eruptions.
1894, six people were killed by volcanic bombs and four by lava flows.
1913, 21 people were killed during an explosive eruption.
1951, The island had to be temporarily evacuated due to volcanic activity.
kills the vegetation, limiting the food supply
contaminates the water supply for the island