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Adult learning theories Visual

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daniel frimpong

on 12 December 2013

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Transcript of Adult learning theories Visual

An adult is a matured person who is
responsible, independent, has reached the
age of majority according to law, and striving
for full development.
The varying nature of adulthood makes it
impossible to apply a single developmental
and learning theory to understand adults

Adult learning theories are based on the

different learning orientations of adults

1. Behaviorists theories
2. Humanist theories
3. Cognitive theories
4. Social Cognitive theories
5. Constructivist theories

Adult learning theories consist of:
Behaviorism comprises a number of

individual theories. John B. Watson was the

first to develop the concept.

Behaviorist Theories:
1. Classical conditioning by Ivan Pavlov. It was developed in the early twentieth century. He conditioned a dog to salivate from the ring of bell
2. Connectionism or the S-R theory of learning. (Edward Thorndike)- 1928
Also used animals in his research. He formulated three laws from his research.
a) The law of effect
b) The law of Exercise
c) The law of readiness

3. Operant Conditioning - (B.F. Skinner).
The theory is based on reinforcing a positive behavior from an individual for it to be repeated. Example is to increase a child's allowance for doing well in school
Negative reinforcement is applied to remove an unpleasant behavior

4. Drive reduction theory- (Clark Hull):
He based his theory on the concept of homeostasis (equilibrium in body)
Hull stated that humans have internal biological needs that drives them to do specific tasks. For example eating when hungry.
Hull's theory was one of the first to explain motivation.

5. Contiguity Theory- (Edwin Guthrie).
He stated that a stimulus that led to a response will lead to the same response when repeated.
One trial learning: New skills can be acquired after doing it only once
Reinforcement simply changed a condition (Reward dose not cause learning)
Forgetting: New habits replaces the old.
Based on the potential for positive human growth
1. Maslow's Hierarchy of needs: Theory of self actualization (Abraham Maslow)
He proposed that human motivation is based on hierarchy of needs.
He arranged the needs for human motivation in a triangular form with physiological needs as the primary to address
2. Experiential learning- Carl Rogers.
He is best known for his client-centered therapy which is equated to student-centered learning.
Student-centered approach is used in science classrooms to encourage students to construct their own knowledge
"Experience, is for me, the highest authority. The touchstone of validity is my own experience. No other person's ideas, and none of my own ideas, are authoritative as my experience. It is to experience that I must return again and again, to discover a closer approximation to truth as it is in the process of becoming me." -CARL ROGERS on becoming a person
Based on how people think, understand, and know
Learning involves the transformation of information in the environment into knowledge and storing it in the mind.
The memory is an active process of information
Prior knowledge is vital to learning
Cognitive theories began through the
research of Gestalt psychologists. Notable
among them were

, and Lewin.
Other cognitive psychologists included Jean Piaget, Ausubel, and Brunner.
He combined the ideas of the behaviorist and the Gestalt school.
He stated that cognitive process functioned due to internal development of the individual and the interaction with the environment.
He developed a theory of cognitive development based on stages in life
Jean Piaget-
Based on what he termed "meaningful learning." Learning should be related to existing knowledge of an individual.
He differentiates meaningful learning from rote learning.
Learning is assimilating new knowledge into existing cognitive structure.
David AUSUBEL: The assimilation theory
Jerome Bruner
He suggested that learners of any age can learn all complex materials as long as instruction is organized right.
He emphasized on the importance of language
He opposed Piaget's notion of readiness before learning appropriate materials
He stated the best way to learn was to discover (DISCOVERY LEARNING) contrasted that of Ausubel.
Theories are based on both the behaviorist and cognitive perspective
Learning is based on observation.
Learning is based on observing, retaining, practicing observed behavior, and motivation.
Based on the idea that people construct knowledge from experience.
Notable constructivist include Vygotsky, Dewey, Jean Lave,
CONSTRUCTIVIST Theories of learning:
BANDURA'S theory
It emphasizes apprenticeship through full participation in an authentic environment that accepts novices as people with potential to learn
Jean Lave: Situated Learning
Vai and Gola Tailors of Liberia
Take a look at the significance of all the learning theories introduced in this presentation.
Is learning = development?
All learning shape the behavior, the internal mental processes, and the personal growth of individuals which lead to
positive development
Learning have led to developmental theories
1. Behavioral development
2. Psychological development
3. Cognitive development
4. Sociocultural development
5. Integrative development
Developmental theories: Have been shaped by the different learning orientations of people.
Watson is the father of behaviorism.
Learning from the behavior perspective shape the behavior of people and development is seem as the correct behavior response from the stimuli applied.
Behaviorist Development theories:
Behaviorist learning perspectives = behavior development for matured responsibilities.
Psychological development theories are
based on the individual internal process. Psychological development is a result of cognitive learning perspective
Gould, Kegan- self development
Erikson- identity development
Fowler- faith development
Levinson- personal development
Daniel Levinson personal development theory
Jean Piaget's cognitive developmental stages is based on his cognitive learning theory.
COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT: Based on cognitive perspective to learning.
Based on social interactions of people.
These theories recognizes age, race, gender, socioeconomic and sexual orientation
DEVELOPMENT requires learning to shape the behavior of people and to support their internal mental processes.
Learning also leads to the personal growth of people which is the foundation for positive development.
Notable Theorist
Lev Vygotsky
Using the field of Adult learning theory to understand the relationship between learning and development
Learning is the prerequisite to developing an understanding in science, my discipline.
(cc) image by rocketboom on Flickr
(cc) image by quoimedia on Flickr
personal growth
(cc) image by rocketboom on Flickr
(cc) image by quoimedia on Flickr
Daniel Frimpong
AL Visual
Lesley University
September 25, 2012
Behavior theories discipline students in a science class
Cognitive theories guide science students to apply their internal mental processes to acquire a meaningful knowledge to solve problems.
Social cognitive theories guide students to work together and learn from each other
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