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Transcript of Bilingual Education
Education in more than
language, while enforcing appreciation for the culture of both languages
How is bilingual education different from foreign language courses?
language is treated as a subject
purpose is to learn an additional language
instruction is in one language
language is used as medium of communication
purpose is to learn across cultures and diversity (biculturalism)
combination of language and content
Coral Way Bilingual Elementary School
Located in Dade County, FL it was established in 1963
First bilingual bicultural program for English and Spanish speakers in the U.S.
Purpose was to meet needs of Cuban refugee children
Title VII of Elementary and Secondary Education Act
Also known as the Bilingual Act
Sponsored by Ralph Yarborough of Texas
Made funds available for districts who had large population of LEP (Limited English Proficient) students but did NOT require bilingual education programs to be created
Reauthorized in 1974: defined bilingual education as "instruction given in English and native language of the children of limited English limited speaking ability...given with appreciation for the cultural heritage"
Lau v. Nichols
U.S. Treaty with Cherokee Nation
Treaty of May 6, 1828: Article five provided $1, 000 for the Cherokee to purchase a printing press "to aid the Cherokees in the progress of education, and to benefit and enlighten them as people, in their own language" (Garcia, 2009, p. 161)
1787: Franklin and Marshall College, bilingual academy was founded in Lancaster, Pennsylvania
There was a prevalent German population in Ohio and Pennsylvania in the early 19th Century which resulted in an Ohio Law of 1839 that allowed the establishment of German schools
History of Bilingual Education in the United States
By 1852: Cherokees in Oklahoma ran 21 bilingual schools
English Official: government official documents and the like printed in English
Senator Samuel Hayakawa introduced amendment to make English the official language in the U.S. in 1981 because they felt that the English language would be replaced.
1998: Republican Ron Unz, also a millionaire of Silicon Valley, sponsored Proposition 227 in California to ban bilingual education, so that the English-only models would be adopted. The English-only models provided one-year structured immersion classes and then transferred the pupils into mainstream classrooms whether ready or not. Surprisingly, the bill received a majority support of 61%. Unz went ahead and carried out the same campaign in Massachusetts in 2002, as Massachusetts Question 2 and the bill was approved there as well. The passage of such bills indicates the conservatism shift that was present in all of education. In Massachusetts, it is probable that because of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, it was better to sacrifice the bilingual program for the sake of standardized test scores to improve.
Currently 31 states have English-official laws
Chinese-American students in San Francisco school district brought suit against the school board because students did not have equal educational opportunities
Brown v. Board of Education
because of the idea of "expansion of opportunities" beyond what is an equitable education
An English-only education violated 14th Amendment and Civil Rights Act of 1964 because the students were being deprived of learning given the barrier of the language
English Official Movement
treats each language separate spheres that coexist
Additive Pedagogical Method
Expert on research for bilingual education. Earned his B.A. from the University of Dublin and earned his doctorate in Educational Psychology from the University of Alberta in 1974.
Created the concept of the Common Underlying Proficiency (CUP) : the set of skills that a child learns in their first language will transfer over to the acquisition of a new language
Therefore, the first language of a child must be reinforced to build on these basic skills
BICS (Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills): social skills needed in the language to carry out easy conversations in daily settings. It takes 6 months to 2 years to develop
Claims that Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency (CALP), which is the academic and higher level thinking takes 5-7 years to develop fully
L1 + L2 = L1 + L2
Purpose is to add a second language and culture affiliation
Teacher plays role of advocate versus disciplinarian
Reciprocal Interaction Model is applied with Additive Pedagogy: dialogue exists between the student and teacher, language is integrated with curriculum content, and talking and writing skills are a priority
Children are taught exclusively (90%) in the language they are trying to acquire
Teacher is bilingual, but must speak solely in one language to her group of students
Languages other than English are taught through the immersion method
The other 10% of English (or native language) is taught by a different teacher in different classrooms to force students to use certain languages in specific settings.
As the students move upward in their educational career, the immersion language (i.e. Chinese) is no longer used in some subjects, such as science. Student's home language is respected after immersion period
Immersion vs. Submersion
When minority students, such as Limited English Proficient are taught through immersion the pedagogy is then changed to submersion, which is the "sink or swim" method
Treats both languages in unison
Understanding of primary language yields transition to learning second language
treats both languages as equal
ideal classroom of half the students being native English speakers and the other half speak a different language
Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach model
Preparation: teacher takes into account background information of students
Presentation: teaching piece
Practice: application of new concepts
Self-evaluation: students reflect on their own learning (i.e. checklist)
Expansion: application of learning to own knowledge
Students connect information to first language knowledge
avoid dominance of a language
students spend half of their time with both languages
Researcher in linguistics and is a professor at the University of Southern California.
Created the Input Hypothesis, which claims that language is learned in one way only. So individuals use their current language and understanding of the world to create connections to the new language
Affective Filter Hypothesis: self-perception and experiences individual impacts acquisition of new language. Experiences that may act as a 'filter' include those of embarrassment for making mistakes in new language. The hypothesis ties into the importance of the role the educator has by either encouraging or suppressing the student depending if they (teacher) views themselves as part of the Additive model or models likewise.
Why Bilingual Education?
Lau v. Nichols, 414 U.S. 563 (1974)
Goodwin, L.A. & Torres-Guzman, M.E. (1995). Mentoring bilingual teachers. FOCUS Occasional Papers in Bilingual Education, 12, 1-20. Retrieved from https://archive.org/details/ERIC_ED389176
Chamot, A.U. & Robbins, J. (2007). The CALLA model: Strategies for ELL students of Success [PDF document]. Retrieved from http://calla.ws/workshops/
Jarmel, M (Producer and Director), Schneider, K (Producer and Director). (2009). Speaking in Tongues (Motion picture). United States: Patchwork Films.
Cummins, J. (February 1986). Empowering Minority Students: A framework for intervention. Harvard Educational Review, 56. Retrieved from http://her.hepg.org/content/b327234461607787/
Blumenfeld, W. (2013, January 16). “English Only” Laws divide and demean. The Huffington Post. Retrieved from
Strauss, V. (2014, October 24). Why is bilingual education ‘good’ for rich kids but ‘bad’ for poor, immigrant students? . The Washington Post. Retrieved from http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/answer-sheet/wp/2014/10/24/why-is-bilingual-education-good-for-rich-kids-but-bad-for-poor-immigrant-students/
Garcia, Ofelia. Bilingual education in the 21st Century: A global perspective: n.p. Wiley-Blackwell, 2009. Print
Ginn, J.D. (Ed.). (2008). Bilingual Education. U.S.: Greenhaven Press.
U.S. Department of Commerce. (2013). Language use in the United States: 2011 (ACS-22) Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
acquisition of new language
Currently, there are 381 languages spoken in the U.S. and the immigrant population continue to increase as well (the offspring are also to be accounted for as potentially being bilingual). With the increase of diversity and the increase of globalization, bilingual education demands to be integrated into every curriculum across the states.
Bilingual education is not only for the Limited English Proficiency, immigrants, and other minorities, but it also benefits the wealthy students because it provides exercise in cognitive and linguistic skills. Additionally, bilingual education disables much of the bigotry and prejudice present towards the group in the language that is being learned.
Dual language, or other heteroglossic pedagogical methods should be adopted for a bilingual curriculum as they place an equal emphasis on both languages throughout the entity of the curriculum.
By Karen Martinez