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Depression, Suicide and Domestic Violence
Transcript of Depression, Suicide and Domestic Violence
Interpersonal, Family, and Psychosocial Characteristics
Under and Overachievement
Disruptive Family Experiences
Loss and Separation
Intrapersonal and Psychological Characteristics
Depression and Hopelessness
Domestic Violence, Child Abuse
Potentially self-destructive ideas, threats, and/or attempts towards one's life.
Mild attempts were defined as any self destructive actions which realistically would not have endangered one's life
Risk Factors of Youth Suicide
Absolution to past behaviours
To control life and death
Cry for help
Forms of Depression
- Bipolar I
- Bipolar II
Bipolar Disorder is distinguished by the presence of manic episodes
Cyclothymia is a milder form of Bipolar Disorder
-it is indicated by the presence of numrous episodes with hypomanic symptoms and numerous periods with depressive symptoms that do not meet the criteria for the major depressive episode
Distinguishes of Bipolar
Listen and respect the feelings of the suicidal youths
Acknowledge their feelings and thoughts
Inquire of action plan
A written consent from the youths to receive proper care
Educate youths of resources within the community
Prevention and Early Intervention
- Post-Suicide: debriefing team to mourn and help the class and the teacher to grief properly
- Opportunities should be provided for the friends and schoolmates to grief
- Need to enlist community resources to manage and provide emergency and information services
- Acknowlegement of grief, guilt, shame, embarassment,helplessness
- Toronto Mental Health Association
Exposure to Domestic Violence is the leading cause of Child Abuse in Ontario
In 2003, an estimated 18,518 children were often silent witnesses to bouts of physical abuse occurring between their parents or caregivers
An increase of 319% from 1998 Child Welfare Reports
Experiences with Child Welfare:
Range from Positive to Harmful
Child Welfare Workers who seemed to be in touch with the difficulties facing an abused women in her decision to leave, were seen as the most helpful
In Summary... Mothers Felt:
Child Welfare involvement 'Opened their Eyes' to the negative impact on their children. Some mothers explained that although they feared and even resisted the involvement of CAS, it was that very involvement that really opened their eyes to the negative environment their children were living in. It was the involvement of CAS that helped them make the decision to leave.
Some mothers feel misunderstood and intimidated by Child Welfare. Some reported feeling intruded upon and intimidated, particularly if they had previous involvement influenced the current investigation in the a negative way. They feel misunderstood and wanted the opportunity to explain their situations more fully.
Child Welfare involvement 'Opened their Eyes' to the negative impact on their children
Some mothers feared and resisted the involvement of CAS
But, CAS involvement helped them make the decision to leave
Felt misunderstood and intimidated
So What About the Children?
Youth Participants Identified the Following Effects of Living in a Home with Domestic Violence:
More prone to react in anger
Always being on guard & lashing out
Strong desire to be with family despite abuse
More likely to take actions on violent or aggressive behaviours
The Youth Also Expressed Concerns an Made Suggestions for Changes:
The needs of positive feedback and support from the workers
The need of individual worker in addtional to family worker
Decrease in case workers' load so they may provide more individual support to their clients
The need of building a stronger relatioships between the case worker and their clients
Decrease in case worker turnover
The lack of support from crown ward workers
Health Care Services and Children's Services:
At what point should they make the call to CAS?
How do they know they are doing the right thing?
'Duty to Report'
Scientific vs. Ecological Models and its relation to Child Abuse
How all affects research & our practice
Transforming data into manageable portions
Using observations and experienmentation in the real world
- Working Model: M
ost Familiar- The Scale Model
- Type 1: Visual representation of a scale that allows the scientist to see something that is otherwise beyond grasp (structure of DNA)
- Type 2: Analogue Model- Unfamiliar structure compared to a familiar structure
--> Useful in early stages of research when we want to understand something
- Paradigms: (ex. If you can't do the time, don't do the crime)
- used by all those working within a particular scientific discipline (ex. Medical models of disability)
- described a variety of scientific observations and experiments and are robust and relatively enduring
- provide the rules within which any particular scientific endeavour can progress
"The way one perceives the world they live in"
Influenced by culture, belief, individual experiences and environment
Our worldviews are always under modification because of new experiences which create new ideas (most modification is unrecognized but makes a significant impact on how scientists approaches his/her work)
Child Maltreatment is multiply determined by forces at work in the individual, in the family and in the community and culture, and that these determinants are nested within one another
1. The Child- This incorporates the nature of the parent's own childhood and early adult life and their perceptions and responses to it
2. Microsystem- the context of the child's immediate family and household. This level involves not just the physical and material characteristics of the immediate setting, but also the interactions between different family members, both directly and indirectly involving the child, and how the child perceives this environment
3. Exosystem- the larger social system within which the family is embedded (ex. parents network of friends)
4. Macrosystem- personal set of values and beliefs that forms within the child based on that child's unique set of personal experiences AND served as a filter or lens through which that child interprets future experiences
4 Levels of Analysis
The importance to the Professional Practice
Scientific Model Importance
Working model level
: We formulate our own ideas why a family is functioning the way it is
within which all our work in the field is grounded
Bring our personal
to our work- recognize those views to overcome prejudices and to look objectively
Ecological Model Importance
Provide a useful framework for understanding the interaction of different factors that may have led to abuse and for ensuring that important factors are not missed. At a wider strategic level, it gives the potential to identify community factors that may be contributing to abuse
There are so many factors that influence the ecological model, therefore there will never be ONE single factor
Recognition of high-risk situations, whether in terms of parental background, indicators of socioeconomic deprivation, social isolation, particular family structures or subcultures in which attitudes tend to denigrate children or their carers, may provide avenues for education or other interventions to reduce risk
To Understand "Risk"
- TWO main strands of research was developed:
: Stemming from the Medical, where abuse is seen as a disorder of the individual (child or abuser)
--> led to understand backgrounds, personalities and
EMPHASIS on high-risk mothers
Sociological Model: factors that affect risk.
Examples: unemployment, poor housing, lack of access to resources and amenities
Impacts of Domestic Violence on Mothers and Children
Children exposed to domestic violence are more recently recognized victims
- may show symptoms in a range of behaviours like aggression temper tantrums, bullying, and cruelty to animals
Women abused experience health risks like depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, risk for suicide, etc.
- some may show symptoms of low self-esteem
Exposure to Domestic Violence Classified as
There is less agreement however, about whether the negative effects should be necessarily defined as "child maltreatment"
and therefore subject to child welfare intervention
Mothers not only have to cope with the abuse of themselves, but also has to cope with the impact
Parents bring their own background into the ecological framework of their family
Abuse is looked at more systematically nowadays
(family and social relationships, environment, culture, etc.)
Ecological model is still a fairly new concept
If there are multiple contributory factors to child abuse, there is scope for prevention targeted at different levels
Specialists are being identified and made available in child welfare settings such as the piloted program "Getting Connected"
Police services, shelters, health care providers etc are services being trained to treat child welfare cases appropriately
The Child and Family Services Act (CFSA)
Recognizes that each of us has a responsibility for the welfare of children
Who does the Act consider a person who performs professional or official duties?
Peace Officers and Coroners
Teachers and School Principles
Social Workers and Family Counsellors
Youth and Recreation Workers (not volunteers)
Operators or Employees of Child Care Programs or Centres
Religious Leaders (including Priests, Rabbis, and members of the Clergy)
Child and Youth Service Providers and Employees of these Service Providers
Health Care Professionals (including Physicians, Nurses, Dentists, Pharmacists, and Psychologists)
AND...any other person who performs Professional or Official Duties with respect to a Child or Youth
Due to differing obligations and responsibilities among varying professionals, mothers, for example, are given conflicting information and advice. This only adds to the challenges they are already experiencing.
In comparison to non-abused women, the research shows that abused women suffer more from negative mental health, psychological, and circumstantial effects
Daily survival and trying to find new ways to stop the violence or escape it, can consume a great deal of energy and focus
Research shows that it may take her several attempts to leave the relationship
Which also suggests that by leaving, she may actually be putting herself and her children in more danger