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Margaret O'Rourke

on 1 April 2016

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Transcript of Hinduism

A Group Cultural Presentation

1. Communication
2. Space
3. Social Organization
4. Time
5. Environmental Control
6. Biological Variations
The Six Health Phenomena
- Nonverbal communication is important to note in Hinduism. Some people of this culture view nonverbal communication as powerful and effective while others consider it unacceptable.
- Some Hindus will nod their head from side to side. That should not be understood as them saying "no" but rather when agreeing.

- When greeting a person, handshakes and the "Hindu Namaskar" (holding hand near chest level and bowing) are acceptable.
By: Dinamarie Chiarenza
Ivana Meservey
Margaret O'Rourke
Tina Sanguinetti
Alexia Williamson

Personal Space - it is a good rule of thumb to have 3 to 3.5 feet of space between you and another person.
Hindus generally do not touch others when communicating (example: pat on the back) however; it is common to see two men holding hands while walking which is a sign of friendship.
Men and women are not allowed to display any form of public physical affection.
Touching of any kind between opposite genders is considered flirting.
In areas where large crowds tend to gather, such as the temple, males and females are typically separated.
Modesty is very important to many Hindu women.
Healthcare providers may encounter difficulties when attempting to assess or examine a client of the opposite sex. Recommending a professional that is the same gender as the client to provide care is beneficial.
When taking care of a patient, rearranging the location of the bed may be needed so that at night during sleep their head is in the correct direction.
An autopsy is usually considered very disrespectful. It is important to understand the family's wishes.
After death, it is important to allow the family to cope. They may be very animated in their grieving process as it helps with the coping process.
Social Organization
Social organizations can be defined as a pattern of relationships between and among individuals and groups.
They "are structured in a variety of groups, including family, religious, ethnic, racial, tribal, kinship, clan, and other special interest groups" (Giger, 2013, p. 63).
According to Giger (2013), social organization includes needs, values, cultural and religious practices of an individual, peers, family, caregivers, social support/ networks.
Important social organizations include: family, marriage, gender roles, caste system, and religion.
Hindu culture begins with the family unit.
The patriarch is the head of the household and his family is under his control.
The matriarch rules within the home among women. The matriarch's daughters and daughter-in laws will follow her lead.
Demands devotions and sacrifice.
Hindu marriages are considered unions of families.
They are social and financial arrangements to strengthen the position of the whole family.
They traditionally take place between children.
Gender Roles
Hindu women are ranked far below men, as far as social status goes.
Some women practice purdah, also known as veil. This is where the woman hides her face behind a veil when she is in public so that she is only seen by her husband.
Women must remain faithful, devoted, and subservient to their husbands.
Caste System
The caste system was developed to organize society. Some families continue to use them today.
Also known as Varnas.
Priests, teachers, and intellectuals.
Provide medical care, guidance, education, and spiritual leadership.
Warriors, police, and administrators.
Protectors of society.
Artisans and workers.
Render services to others.
Considered to be outside of the caste system.
Held the dirtiest jobs.
Viewed as defiled and polluted.
Farmers, merchants, and business people
Perform rites of passage and rituals.
Also known as the productive class.
Third largest religion in the world.
No founder or origin date.
Diverse, no single doctrine or set of beliefs.
Represents numerous traditions.
Differentiates between matter and spirit.
Atman - the individual self, or soul.
Paramatman - The supreme self, or god.
According to Giger (2013), time is defined by two distinct meanings.
Duration, an interval of time.
Specific instances or points in time.
Hindu's believe time is a manifestation of god. God is timeless and the past, present, & future coexist in god simultaneously.
Hindus are past, present, and future oriented.
Past oriented - cultural emphasis on rituals and traditions.
Present oriented - due to their concept of being "beings-in-becoming."
Future oriented - due to their importance which their culture places on the hereafter.
The Hindu concept of time is cyclical (external and degenerative).
The Western concept of time is linear (limited and progressive).
There are four stages (yugas) that successively become more degenerated:
Satya (Krita)
Biological Variations
Food patterns and nutritional intake vary among different cultures. Seasonings and spices typically used in Indian food include chili pepper, cardamom, tumeric, paprika, ginger, black mustard seed, corianger, garlic, cumin, cinnamon, clove, saffron, and nutmeg. These seasonings all have health benefits. A few examples of curry dishes include egg curry with tomatoes, spinach curry with cheese, eggplant curry, and cheese curry with green beans. Although vegetarian dishes are the most popular cuisine, many curry dishes and dinner recipes include chicken, lamb, shrimp, or fish.
Biological Variations
Susceptibility to disease
People of India are most susceptible to the following diseases: Malaria, Goiter, dental diseases, tuberculosis, sickle cell anemia, fluorosis, beriberi, lactose intolerance, cancer of the stomach, cheek, nose, breast, and mouth, rheumatic heart disease, cardiovascular disease, osteomalacia, thiamine deficiency, endemic dropsy.
Psychological characteristics
Psychiatric disorders exist worldwide, affecting about 10% of the adult population. In the midst of mental illness many of the social values take their ugly forms in the form of domestic violence, dowry harassment, abuse of dowry law, dowry death, separation, and divorce.
Biological Variations
Skin color
People of India typically exhibit various shades of brown skin, straight black hair and usually have brown eyes. They do not have specific physical characteristics that differentiate them from many other different ethnic groups.
Body structure
According to Giger, "noses come in all shapes and sizes; however, nose size and shape correlate directly with one's racial ancestry" (p. 124).
Average heights of Indian men and women are 5'5" and 5', respectively.
Buttermilk Curry
Learning Style 1
Part 1
Part 2
Part 3
Part 4
Learning Style 2










Giger, J. N. (2013). Transcultural Nursing: Assessment and Intervention. Los Angeles: Elsevier.

Culture and Religion Information Sheet. (September 2015).


India: Personal Space and Touching.
Thanks for watching!
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