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Territorial Expansion and Manifest Destiny
Transcript of Territorial Expansion and Manifest Destiny
-Doctrine first expressed in 1845 by John L. O'Sullivan
(1840s and 1850s) The Manifest Destiny was the belief that the United States was predestined by God to move westward
The phrase “manifest destiny” expressed the belief that the United States was destined to expand to the Pacific Ocean and into Mexican and Native American territory. Many Americans also believed that this destiny was manifest, or obvious and inevitable.
Most Americans had practical reasons for moving west. For settlers, land was the greatest attraction. Merchants and manufacturers followed, seeking new markets for their goods. Many Americans also moved west because of personal economic problems in the East, such as the panic of 1837.
A 2,000 mile trail that stretched from Independence, Missouri, to the rich farming lands of the Willamette Valley in Oregon.
Many pioneers migrated west on the Oregon Trail.
Some bought “prairie schooners,” wooden-wheeled wagons covered with sailcloth and pulled by oxen. Others walked, pushing handcarts carrying possessions, food, and other supplies. The journey on the trail took months to complete.
Mexican American War
General Winfield Scott
United States general who was a hero of the War of 1812 and who defeated Santa Anna in the Mexican War.
During the Mexican-American War, Scott made the country's first amphibious landing, moving from ships to land near the city of Vera Cruz.
After a week long siege, Mexico surrendered the city.
A United States army general, diplomat, and an
unsuccessful presidential candidate of the Whig Party in 1852.
known as "old fuss and feathers" and the "grand old man of the army"
James K. Polk
Defeated Henry Clay in 1844.
When Mexico opposed the Annexation of Texas, he led the nation to victory in the Mexican American War and gained the Mexican Cession.
He served only one term and did not run for reelection.
Was an advocate of Manifest Destiny, he pursued a war with Mexico and gained the Oregon territory and the Mexican Cession.
John C. Calhoun
Leading southern politician of the early nineteenth century; he served as vice president under both John Quincy Adams and Andrew Jackson and then was elected senator from South Carolina
Calhoun began his political career as a supporter of a strong national government and protective tariffs.
After 1830, his views evolved
and he became a greater advocate of states' rights, limited government, nullification and free trade.
Calhoun strongly advocated slavery and states' rights. During the early 1830s, he led the nullification movement
(when a state found a federal law unacceptable, the state had the right to declare the law null, or invalid within its borders)
Calhoun also opposed protective tariffs and the Compromise of 1850.
Although he died in 1850,
his influence helped point the South toward secession and the Civil War.
Martin Van Buren
(1837-1841) (Free Soil)
First served in the Senate and as governor of New York. He later became Secretary of State and then Vice-president under President Andrew Jackson.
As president, he supported states' rights but didn't want slavery to expand into new states or territories. He didn't favor the annexation of Texas but fought the Seminole War to try to bring Florida into the Union.
Van Buren's downfall was the Panic of 1837. Even though banks were failing, he refused to have the federal government get involved.
Free Soil Movement
Election of 1848
Stephen F. Austin
"54-40 or fight"
Republic of Texas
Bear Flag Rebellion
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
Compromise of 1850
(in the context of the slavery debate)
Notion that the sovereign people of a given territory should decide whether to allow slavery.
Apparently a compromise, it was largely opposed by Northern abolitionists who feared it would promote the spread of slavery to the territories.
(1846) Amendment that sought to prohibit slavery from territories acquired from Mexico.
Introduced by Pennsylvania congressman
This failed amendment sparked up tensions between the North and South over the issue of slavery.
The Mormons were a religious community that migrated westward along the Oregon Trail to escape persecution and played a major role in the development of the West.
in New York in 1827, the Mormon community moved to Ohio and then Illinois to escape persecution. After an anti-Mormon mob murdered Smith, a leader named
urged the Mormons to move farther west. In 1847, the Mormons stopped at a desert near the Great Salt Lake, in what is now Utah. They later created thriving settlements and farms from the bare landscape by irrigating their fields.
Salt Lake City developed out of the land the Mormons called Deseret.
Slogan adopted by mid-nineteenth century expansionists who supported the total US occupation of Oregon Territory,
which was jointly held by Britain and the US. Though President Polk had promised to seize all of Oregon, to
, he settled on the forty-ninth parallel as a compromise with the British.
(1848) Ended the war with Mexico.
On February 2, 1848, the United States and Mexico signed the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
Mexico agreed to the Rio Grande as the border between Texas and Mexico.
The United States also agreed to pay $15 million for the Mexican Cession.
After obtaining support of the powerful Massachusetts senator Daniel Webster,
presented to the Senate a series of resolutions later called the Compromise of 1850. It was rejected at first by the Senate in July, but was accepted eight months later when senator
Stephen A. Douglas
took over and presented each resolution to the Senate individually.
Admitted California as a free state, opened New Mexico and Utah to popular sovereignty, ended the slave trade in Washington D.C., Texas gave up its claims to lands disputed with New Mexico and was paid $10 million for its land lost, and introduced a more strict fugitive slave law.
It temporarily calmed the slavery controversy
and led to a short-lived era of national good feelings, passed under
President Franklin Pierce
to pay Mexico an additional
for a 29,670 square mile portion of Mexico south of the Gila River in order to secure a southern railroad route to the Pacific Ocean.
The Gadsden Purchase provided the land necessary for a southern transcontinental railroad and established the borders of the lower 48 states.
"American Progress" By John Gast (1872)
Symbolic representation of the modernization of the new west. The painting portrays settlers moving westward, guided by Columbia (who represents America) and aided by technology (railways and telegraph). In the far left, Native Americans and bison are being driven away. It is also important that Columbia is bringing the "light" towards the "darkened" west.
Zachary Taylor (Whig) Hero of the Mexican War
Martin Van Buren (Free Soil Party) Made slavery an issue
Lewis Cass (Democrat) Supported Popular Sovereignty
Zachary Taylor became president, died in office, making his vice president Millard Fillmore president
(early 1800s) Individuals who spent long months in the Rockies in pursuit of trapping animals for fur trading.
Their exploits promoted the development of a thriving fur trade. Some mountain men maintained close relationships with the Native American tribes, and married the native women. A significant contribution made by mountain men
was the geographical information they gathered about the mountain regions
Name for the prospectors that went to California during the Gold Rush of 1849.
The prospectors included people from Asia, South America, and Europe. In time, the names of the mining camps that were established in California reflected the diversity of its large population: French Corral, Irish Creek, and Chinese Camp.
The name for the
region of the present day southwestern United States that was ceded to the U.S. by Mexico in 1848 under the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo after the Mexican-American War.
This massive land acquirement was significant because it further enlarged and enriched the US. Also, the question of extending slavery into the newly acquired territories became the leading national political issue. To Mexico,the loss of an enormous part of its territory was a tremendous embarrassment and created lasting anger among many of its citizens.
This territory included California, New Mexico, Nevada, Arizona, Utah, Texas, and parts of Colorado and Wyoming
(1846) In California, a group of American settlers seized the town of Sonoma in June 1846. Hoisting a flag that featured a grizzly bear, the rebels declared their independence from Mexico and proclaimed the nation of the Republic of California
. Colonel Stephen Kearny arrived from New Mexico and joined forces with Frémont and an American naval expedition. The Mexican troops quickly gave way, leaving U.S. forces in control of California. California went on to join the union in 1850. The Bear Flag became the official state flag in 1911.
(1836-1846) Also known as the
"Lone Star Republic"
, it was an independent sovereignty in North American as a result of the Texas Revolution. Created March, 1836 but not recognized until after the battle of San Jacinto. Its second president
Mirabeau B. Lamar
attempted to develop relations with England and France. However, rising public debt, internal conflicts and renewed threats from Mexico led Texas to join the U.S. in 1845.
Texas became a state on December 29, 1845 under President Tyler. The Annexation of Texas was a major factor of the Mexican-American War.
Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna was a
Mexican military and political leader who tried to crush the Texan revolt.
Won at the Battle of the Alamo, but was crushed at San Jacinto. He was captured as a prisoner and was forced to sign Treaty of Velasco, giving Texas its independence
(1819) The Adams-Onís Treaty, formally known as the Transcontinental Treaty of 1819, was negotiated between the United States and Spain during the presidency of
Signed February of 1819, the treaty gave the US the acquisition of Florida for $5 million and established a new boundary line between Spanish and US territory.
The 49th parallel was the line of latitude dividing the United States’ and Great Britain’s portions of the Oregon Territory after 1846.
Originally they had jointly occupied the entire territory, but American expansionists — among them President James Polk — were increasingly looking to end the joint occupation and claim Oregon for America alone. In 1846, the two countries reached an agreement to divide the territory at the 49th parallel. Oregon Country would later become the modern-day states of Oregon, Washington, and Idaho, as well as portions of Montana and Wyoming.
Fortress in Texas where four hundred American volunteers were slain by Santa Anna in 1836. "Remember the Alamo" became a battle cry in support of Texan independence.
The commander of the Anglo troops, Lieutenant Colonel William Travis, moved his men into the Alamo,
a mission and fort in the center of San Antonio, Texas
. From February 23, 1836, Santa Anna and his troops attacked the rebels located in the Alamo. On March 2, 1836, as the battle for the Alamo raged, Texans declared their independence from Mexico and quickly ratified a constitution based on that of the United States. The 13-day siege ended on March 6, 1836, when Mexican troops scaled the Alamo’s walls.
A broad valley in southwest Wyoming at the southern end of the Wind River Range. It was a gateway for immigration to the Far West.
Inflow of thousands of miners to Northern California after news reports of the discovery of gold at Sutter's Mill in January of 1848.
By the end of 1849, California’s population exceeded 100,000, including Mexicans, free African-American miners, and slaves. T
he discovery of gold revolutionized California’s economy. Gold financed the development of farming, manufacturing, shipping, and banking.
Because of its location as a supply center, San Francisco became “a pandemonium of a city.” Mining continued in California throughout the 1850s, but the peak of the gold rush was over by 1853. By 1857, the total value of gold production in California approached two billion dollars.
(March 4, 1849 – July 9, 1850)(Whig)
Taylor was a Mexican War hero, having won victories at the
Battles of Monterrey and Buena Vista.
He easily won presidency mainly because he refused to comment on troublesome issues such as slavery and popular sovereignty.
Among the major things that occurred while he was in office was the debates over the Compromise of 1850. He was in office only a year before he died and was succeeded by his vice president Millard Fillmore.
-The formal act of acquiring something (especially territory) by conquest or occupation
-To incorporate (territory) by joining or uniting (Texas)
President Andrew Jackson's tactics and policies angered many people including many members of his own Democratic party.
In 1834, members including Henry Clay, John Quincy Adams and Daniel Webster, disconnected and formed a new political party called the Whig party. They backed the American System, supported protective tariffs, and the federal banking system.
The Mormon religion was controversial for its belief in
a practice that allows a man to have more than one wife.
A successful empresario (land agent) of Texas who created a colony in Texas (1821) that attracted many American families.
In 1821, Austin established a colony where “no drunkard, no gambler, no profane swearer, and no idler” would be allowed. By 1825, Austin had issued 297 land grants to the group that later became known as
Texas’s Old Three Hundred
. By 1830, there were more than 20,000 Americans in Texas.
n 1833, Austin traveled to Mexico City to present petitions to Mexican president Antonio López de Santa Anna for greater self-government for Texas
While Austin was on his way home, Santa Anna had Austin imprisoned for inciting revolution. Considered
"Father of Texas"
served two months as Secretary of State of the Texas Republic
To make the land more secure and stable, Mexico encouraged Americans to settle in Texas. They offered land grants to
(agents) who sold land cheaply; this was a main appeal for American settlers.
Leader who defeated and captured Santa Anna at the Battle of San Jacinto, the battle responsible for winning Texas its freedom.
Six weeks after the defeat at the Alamo, the rebels' commander in chief, Sam Houston, and 900 soldiers surprised a group of Mexicans near the
San Jacinto River
"Remember the Alamo"
, the Texans killed 630 of Santa Anna's soldiers in 18 minutes and captured Santa Anna. The Texans set Santa Anna free only after he signed the
Treaty of Velasco
, which granted independence to Texas.
In September of 1836, Sam Houston was elected president of the new Republic of Texas.
Annexation of Texas: 1838 Houston invites U.S. to annex, or incorporate, Texas. South favors wanting to extend slavery, North opposes annexation; annexation was delayed by the balance of free and slave states, Texas becomes state in 1845 under President Tyler
(1846-1848) Conflict after the US annexation of Texas
; The Mexican-American War began when Mexican troops crossed north of the Rio Grande River and opened fire on U.S. troops at Fort Texas.
American troops in Mexico, led by U.S. generals Zachary Taylor and Winfield Scott, scored many military victories.
Some battles included: Palo Alto, Battle of Monterrey, Battle of Buena Vista, Capture of Vera Cruz, and the Battle of Cerro Gordo. The US won and received a huge tract of land called the
after signing the
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
and paying Mexico $15 million.
Santa Anna took control of the government after Mexico won independence in 1821. He spent the next 35 years alternately serving as president, leading troops into battle, and living in exile.
The Free Soil Party was a short-lived political party that opposed the extension of slavery into territories.
Many of the Free-Soilers were not abolitionists, and supported racist laws prohibiting settlement by blacks in their communities and denying them the right to vote. What Free-Soilers primarily objected to was slavery’s competition with free white workers, or a
wage-based labor force,
which the North depended on. They feared that such competition would drive down wages. Free-Soilers were convinced that a conspiracy existed to spread slavery throughout the United States.
Oregon Country was a
portion of land between the Pacific Ocean and the Rocky Mountains
in the northwest portion of the present-day United States.
In 1818, the United States and Britain agreed to a "joint occupation" of Oregon, allowing citizens of both countries to settle there
The British came mostly for the
, while Americans came to be
missionaries or to start farms or larger settlements.
Gold miners at Spanish Flat, California, 1852
Henry Arthur McArdle conveys the brutality of the fighting in Dawn at the Alamo, painted between 1876 and 1883
19th century covered wagon popularly used by pioneers heading westward. The name prairie schooner was derived from the wagon’s white canvas cover, or bonnet, which gave it the appearance, from a distance, of the sailing ship known as a schooner.
A gold prospector panning for gold
Rendering and photograph of the first bear flag. The original flag was destroyed in the 1906 San Francisco earthquake and fire.
Taylor/Fillmore Campaign Poster
Describe the significance of forced removal of American Indians to the trans-Mississippi West.
Since the beginning of white occupation in North America, Indians have been viewed as an obstacle to expansion. The Louisiana Purchase and victory in the War of 1812 removed the British, the Indians primary advocate, from the American West and spark new American nationalism centering on a new desire to expand. Only the Native American stood in the way. In 1830, the Indian Removal Act was issued to remove all Indians, by force if necessary. Between 1832 and 1835, bands of Cherokee Indians moved along the Trail of Tears. Between 2000 and 4000 of the 16,000 Cherokee Indians died.
Describe western migration and cultural interactions.
By 1840, nearly 7 million Americans, 40 of the population at the time, lived in the trans-Appalachian west. Most of these people left their homes in the East in search of economic opportunities. Many pioneers associated westward migration to freedom. In 1845, journalist John O'Sullivan argue that it was America's "manifest destiny" to "carry the experiment of liberty." As the California Gold Rush gathered people from everywhere, Mexicans also sought to dig gold. However, "foreigners"unleashed a barrage of physical and political attacks against their competitors. Overall, Hispanic Americans lost their majority status, as well as many of their basic rights.
Describe the territorial acquisitions of the 19th century.
The first major United States territorial acquisition was the U.S. acquisition of the Louisiana territory from France in 1803 for $15 million (Louisiana Purchase). The purchase secured American control of the Mississippi river and doubled the size of the nation. At the Convention of 1818, the Canadian boundary wast set along the 49th parallel up to the Oregon Territory. The Adams-Onís Treaty was negotiated between the United States and Spain. Signed February of 1819, the treaty gave the US the acquisition of Florida and established a new boundary line between Spanish and US territory.In 1844, Democrat James K Polk called for the annexation of the entire Oregon Territory. Newspapers adopted the slogan "Fifty-Four Forty or Fight!" to support Polk. The slogan referred to the latitude 54 degrees 40', the northern limit of the disrupted Oregon Territory. As the fur trade declined, Britain's interest in the territory decreased. Oregon was acquired by the US in 1846 by a treaty with the British (split at the 49th parallel). The Texas annexation 1845 incorporated the Republic of Texas into the US, which was admitted to the Union as the 28th state. Both houses of Congress supported annexation under President John Tyler, and he signed the bill shortly before leaving office. The Mexican Cession was a large tract of land ceded to the U.S. by Mexico in 1848 under the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo following the Mexican-American War. This territory included California, New Mexico, Nevada, Arizona, Utah, Texas, and parts of Colorado and Wyoming. Lastly, the Gadsden Purchase of 1853 was a small terriotoyr the US bought from Mexco for $10 in order to secure a southern railroad route to the Pacific Ocean.
Describe the Mexican War and its significance.
The Mexican War was an armed conflict between the United States and Mexico from 1846 to 1848. Most of Congress as well as President Polk were for the war. They believed in Manifest Destiny, and Polk wanted California. In May 1846, the United States declared war. It began with the Thorton Affair, when Mexican troops crossed north of the Rio Grande River and opened fire on U.S. troops at Fort Texas. When Polk received word of the Thornton Affair, which, added to the Mexican government's rejection of Slidell (Polk sent John Slidell to Mexico to negotiate an agreement that the Rio Grande River would be the southern border of Texas. Instructed to offer 30 million for California. Mexico denied Slidell), constituted a cause for war. His message to Congress on May 11, 1846, stated that "Mexico has passed the boundary of the United States, has invaded our territory and shed American blood upon American soil. Congress approved the declaration of war on May 13, strongly supported by southern Democrats. American troops in Mexico, led by U.S. generals Zachary Taylor and Winfield Scott, scored many military victories. Battles included: Palo Alto, Battle of Monterrey, Battle of Buena Vista, Capture of Vera Cruz,and the Battle of Cerro Gordo. After over a year of fighting, Mexico declared defeat. On February 2, 1848, the United States and Mexico signed the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, ending the war. Mexico agreed to the Rio Grande as the border between Texas and Mexico and ceded the New Mexico and California territories to the United States. The United States also payed $15 million for the Mexican cession, which included present- day California, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, most of Arizona, and parts of Colorado and Wyoming. With this huge land gain, the issue of slavery in the new territories was raised. This led directly to the Compromise of 1850. This compromise raised tensions further between the North and the South, and ultimately created conditions for the American Civil War.
Sovereign:possessing supreme or ultimate power
original Burnet Flag (1836-1839)
Lone Star Flag
1819- US acquires Florida from Spain in the Adams-Onis Treaty
1821- Stephen F. Austin settles in Texas as an empresario and creates a settlement that attracts many American families
1828- Andrew Jackson is elected seventh President of the United States (Democratic)
1830-Joseph Smith establishes the Mormon Church
1832- Andrew Jackson is reelected
1833- Santa Anna is elected President of Mexico
1836- Martin Van Buren (Free Soil) is elected eighth President of the United States
1836- Texas declares independence from Mexico
1836- Battle of Alamo and San Jacinto fought, Republic of Texas formed
1838- Removal of the Cherokee along the Trail of Tears begins
1840- William Henry Harrison is elected ninth President of the United States
1844-James K. Polk is elected 11the President of the United States (Democratic)
1845- Texas is annexed into the Union as the 28th state
April 25, 1846- Mexican-American War begins
June 1846- Bear Flag Revolt-a small group of American settlers in California rebelled against the Mexican government and proclaimed California an independent republic
1847- Mormons migrate tp Utah led by Brigham Young and create a thriving settlement
1847- US wins Mexican- American War
1848- Zachary Taylor is elected 12th President of the United States (Whig)
1848- Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo signed
1849- California Gold Rush creates a diverse population in California
September 1850- Compromise of 1850 passed
1853- United States makes Gadsden Purchase under President Fillmore
Match the Term With Its Definition
a. Manifest Destiny
b. Gold Rush
d. Treaty Of Guadalupe Hidalgo
e. Mexican Cession
g. Adams-Onis Treaty
3. The belief that the US was predestined by God to move westward
1. (1819) Treaty between US and Spain that gave the US the acquisition of Florida for $5 million and established a new boundary line between Spain and the US
2. Treaty that ended the War with Mexico, Mexico agreed to the Rio Grande as the border between Texas and Mexico and the US payed $15 million for the Mexican cession
4. Large region of land that was ceded to the US in 1848 under the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
5. A religious community that migrated westward along the Oregon Trail to escape persecution
6. Inflow of thousands of miners to Northern California after reports of discovery of Gold at Sutter's Mill in January
7. Name for the prospectors that went to California during the Gold Rush of 1849