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Things Fall Apart Research Project
Transcript of Things Fall Apart Research Project
Igbo By: Cesar Pascua, Amya Oliver, and Johnathan Mejia Igbo History Igbo had a Stateless society and the region did not centralize political institution before colonial period. They lived in small self contained groups in villages that did not allow social stratification (Coutsoukis et al.). The population is the second largest in Nigeria. It's estimated from 5-6 million people. Igboland's total are is 15,800 square miles. Igbo country has for distinct areas. Low lying deltas and riverbanks are heavily inundated during rainy season (soil is fertile), central belt of high plains, and Udi highlands which are the only coal mining in Africa. (Njoku 92). Igboland is the home of the Igbo people. It covers most of the south-eastern Nigeria. The area is divided by the Niger river into two unequal sections. Their ancient settlement was an outpost for West African's long distance trade routes. The Trans-Saharan trade route was one of the routes that passed through Igboland. (Coutsoukis et al.). Geography Igbo religion believes in one creator, God, Also called Chineke or Chukwu. The creator can be approached through other deities and spirits in the form of natural objects. Most commonly by the thunder god, Amadioha. There is a belief that the Igbo ancestors protect their living descendents and also responsible for rain, harvest, health, and children. Shrines called, "Mbari" are made to honor the earth spirit. Other shrines are wooden figures representing ancestors and patrons. (Widjaja Igbo Culture).
Compared to other cultures, cases show that the subject and the person whom is he or she, is said to be reincarnated (previous personality) relatively biological or maritally. Other cases show high incidence about 68% of birthmarks and birthdefects that correspond with wounds of an Igbo's previous life. 18% of reincarnated Igbos claim to have been a person of the opposite sex in the previous life. Igbo children who were reincarnated of someone else keep their mouths closed about their previous (Stevenson 368). Kola Nuts: The nuts are 5cm and are "blessed with incantations" before eating in order to "make people feel welcome" (Widjaja ).
If a host does not have any Kola Nuts they must perform "the explanatory apology" (Widjaja).
A plate of Kola nuts is presented to the leader of the visiting group and the leader acknowledges that he has seen the plate by touching it with his right hand. Then the plate is shown to other members of the group in order according to senority (Widjaja).
After the plate is given back to the host, the host gives the leader of the visting group one nut and says "Öjï luo ünö okwuo ebe osi bia." which means "When the Kola nut reaches home, it will tell where it came from"(Widjaja). The visitor must show the nut to his village when he goes back.
The more pieces the nut breaks into, the better(Widjaja).
Kola nuts are associated with man, so only men can climb and pluck a kola tree (Widjaja). Work Cited Masquerades and Festivals: Happen in accordance with the community calendar during festivals, annual festivities, burial rites, and other social gatherings(Widjaja)
Colorful robes and masks made of wood or fabric are worn(Widjaja)
"Some masks appear only at one festival but the majority appears at many or all" (Widjaja).
The masks are associated with spritual elements. They "represent images of deities or sometimes even dead relatives"(Widjaja).
Their identity is a very well-kept secret and the masqueraders are exclusively men(Widjaja). Language: Composed of Kwa languages(Froiland)
The definition of some words can change depending on "context, pitch, and vocal inflections"(Froiland) Culture Religion/Reincarnation In the mid 1400's coastal merchants sent a lot of Igbo people to Portuguese slave traders.They held them in forts along the coast.Then they shipped them to the Americas. Before the 1900's the Igbo lacked a strong identity as a unified ethnic group.The UK gained control of Nigeria during the late 1800's and early 1900's.They ruled it until 1960.Most Igbo adopted Christianity in the colonial period. In 1967, the eastern regions in Nigeria, which included Igbo territories, declared independence from the rest of the nation. The Igbo strongly supported this republic.It was called Biafra.Civil war broke out between Biafra and Nigeria.The war went on till 1970 when Biafra surrendered. "Countries and Their Cultures." Igbo. Njoku, John E. Eberegbulam. The Igbos of Nigeria: Ancient Rites, Changes, and Survival. Lewiston, N.Y.: E. Mellen
Press, 1990., 2001. Web. 28 Sept. 2012. <http://www.everyculture.com/wc/Mauritania-to-Nigeria/Igbo.html>.
Culture-the-igbo-15. N.d. Photograph. Market, Nigeria.
Froiland, Andrew. "Tribes & People Groups Ibo (Igbo)." The Africa Guide. Emuseum, n.d. Web. 30 Sept. 2012.
Igbo-Mask. N.d. Photograph. Nigeria.
Kalu, Ogbaa. "Countries and Their Cultures." Igbo. Heritage Library of African Peoples. New York: Rosen Publishing Group, 1995 Read More: Igbo -
Introduction, Location, Language, Folklore, Religion, Major Holidays, Rites of Passage, Relationships, Living Conditions Http://www.everyculture.com/wc/Mauritania-to-Nigeria/Igbo.html#b#ixzz27iVpCo53, n.d. Web. 27 Sept. 2012. <http://www.everyculture.com/wc/Mauritania-to-Nigeria/Igbo.html>.
"Nigeria The Igbo: A Stateless Society? - Flags, Maps, Economy, Geography, Climate, Natural Resources, Current Issues, International
Agreements,Population, Social Statistics, Political System." Nigeria TIgbo: A Stateless Society? - Flags, Maps, Economy, Geography, Climate, Natural Resources, Current Issues, International Agreements,Population, Social Statistics, Political System. Copyright © 2001 Photius Coutsoukis (all Rights Reserved), 2 July 2001. Web. 28 Sept. 2012. <http://workmall.com/wfb2001/nigeria/nigeria_history_the_igbo_a_stateless_society.html>.
Stevenson, Ian. "CHARACTERISTICS OF CASES OF THE REINCARNATION TYPE AMONG THE IGBO OF NIGERIA." Gale Group. Gale, 27 Sept. 2012. Web. 27 Sept.
A Typical Igbo Woman - Anambra State. 2005. Photograph. Nigeria.
Widjaja, Michael. "Kola Nut." Kola Nut. N.p., 19 June 2001. Web. 27 Sept. 2012. <http://www.igboguide.org/HT-chapter8.htm>.
Widjaja, Michael. "Religion." Igbo. N.p., 2000. Web. 28 Sept. 2012. <http://www.igboguide.org/HT-chapter6.htm>.