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Transcript of Media Integration
Lecture capture is a multi-media capturing of live lectures before an audience of students in higher education. The lecture is then made available to students in a digital video format .
Podcasts – audio only
Vodcasts – video only
Screencasts – only the instructor’s speech and image is captured
Fully comprehensive lecture capture systems will simultaneously record the instructor (audio & video) and show images on a computer, and/or document camera, as well as the audience (audio & video).
Comprehensive lecture capture systems are expensive.
Even low cost/free lecture capture systems require tech savvy faculty.
Lecture capture could impact class attendance.
Teaching to the technology.
Lecture Capture: Opportunities and Recommendations
Kate Newman, Joan Ahrens,
& Michelle Beermann
Lecture capture gives students the ability to review complex material presented during lectures.
They can fast forward, rewind, and pause for note-taking purposes.
Students with disabilities and and non-native English speakers also benefit from closed captioning.
Faculty benefit from reduced need to repeat points during lecture.
Consult the institution’s information technology specialists prior to initiating the process of lecture capture.
Make teaching to the live class and not the camera the priority.
Address any copyright issues before they arise, and gain permission from publishers to record text.
What’s the most interesting way you have seen media integrated into an eLearning course?
What is do you believe is the most significant challenge of media integration?
How do you think we will integrate media into online classrooms in the future?
DePietro, P. (2012). Transforming education with new media: Participatory pedagogy, interactive learning and
International Journal Of Technology, Knowledge & Society, 8
Gualtieri, L., Javetski, G., & Corless, H. (2012). The integration of social media into courses: a literature review and
case study from experiences at Tufts University School of Medicine.
Future Learning, 1
Jonassen, D. H., Carr, C., & Yueh, H. (1998). Computers as mindtools for engaging learners in critical thinking.
Mogamat, A. (2014). Digital media for distance education.
Pediatric Radiology, 44
Singh, A., Mangalaraj, G., & Taneja, A. (2010). Bolstering teaching through online tools.
Journal of Information
Systems Education, 21
Stavredes, T., & Herder, T. (2014).
A guide to online course design: Strategies for student success.
Thoms, B., & Eryilmaz, E. (2014). How media choice affects learner interactions in distance learning classes.
Computers & Education, 75
Enhancing the Online Classroom with Media
Research indicates that online classrooms can be equal to seated classrooms, so long as technology and media are utilized effectively (Singh, Mangalaraj, & Tanega, 2010).
are basic media resources that can be used individually.
Fortunately, new media has transformed options for instructors. Online educators now have access to a
myriad of multimedia
, which can replicate the experience of a physical classroom.
The Opportunities Provided by Media Integration in an eLearning Setting
Best Practice Recommendations
Examples of Multimedia for Use in Online Classrooms
Virtual Field Trips: Issues and Challenges
Field trips that are conducted over the internet or through the use of video conferencing technology.
Can be synchronous or asynchronous. Synchronous virtual trips include time spent talking with a subject expert and generally allow Q&A. Asynchronous virtual trips use videos and data files stored on the web and can be used by the student at any time.
Students and schools must have the technology needed to view the virtual field trip.
Most field trips available are not interactive.
Virtual field trips are NOT "virtual reality," meaning that the student is not immersed in a 3-D interactive experience.
Virtual field trips cannot provide full training in needed skills for all subjects. For instance, medical students can view an operation being performed, but they will not learn the techniques of surgery just by watching.
Scheduling synchronous field trips can be extremely difficult for online students.
Some virtual field trips are offered for free, but others charge a fee for their content.
Visual Representations and Demonstrations: Issues and Challenges
Visual representations are critical because they help students both comprehend and retain information. While relevant visual representations vary depending on the material covered, frequently-used representations include "pictures or slideshows, timelines [...], and knowledge maps" (Stavredes & Herder, 2014, p. 98).
Demonstrations are also valuable tools for online learners. Typically, they would incorporate text, audio, and an image or video component. They help the student understand a concept by offering a
. There are a myriad of online demonstrations for online classrooms, which can be found just by searching current available resources online.
If the instructor uses a visual representation that is not accurate, the mental image a student forms will be inaccurate. This prevents the student from retaining that information.
The Challenges of Integrating Media into the Online Classroom
Social Media: Issues and Challenges
Opportunities and Suggestions When Using Social Media
As of 2011, four in five (American) internet users are using social media. Americans "spend more of their internet time on social media than on any other online activities" (Gualtieri, Javetski, & Corless, 2012, p. 79). Social media is already used by virtually all colleges and universities in the U.S. for advertisement, alumni, and community outreach. This has naturally fostered interest in using social media in the classroom, both on and offline.
Youtube can be used to share student-made videos between classmates. Twitter and Facebook may serve as tools to facilitate discussion and encourage overall class communication. Wikis and blogs can help students and instructors communicate on individual and group projects.
Interestingly, research has found that students are more like to communicate with professors if they are Facebook friends.
"Pedagogical experts have argued that social media has irreversibly changed how we learn and how we come up with ideas" (Gualtieri, Javetski, & Corless, 2012, p. 96). This has given rise to a new type of pedagogy called Connectivism, which emphasizes the ability to find and apply knowledge when needed, rather than memorization of concepts.
Challenges: Students may feel that their privacy is threatened. Some students may have considerable experience with social media, while others do not. In synchronous settings, students may use social media for personal pursuits, rather than academic.
Opportunities: Social media keeps students connected to classmates and faculty. It enhances peer collaboration, and students have the opportunity to learn a new skill set for both problem-solving and networking. Social media usage may be required in the student's field.
In a 2013 study comparing online classroom interaction, researchers found that Moodle interactions were more formal. Facebook offered more room for student expression (Thoms & Eryilmaz, 2014).
Using social media platforms that students are unfamiliar with can be a positive and enriching experience.
However, be aware of the potential differences and gaps in experiences from student to student. Offer training or training resources to students in need.
ePortfolios allow students to showcase their accomplishments (e.g., class projects, essays, reflections, etc.), create online digital resumes, and track academic progress.
There are a number of online presentation media for students to utilize.
Look into training opportunities that your institution offers, so that you may stay up-to-date with the newest media resources.
"When an instructor creates pedagogy that balances theory and practice, and it works, the instructor should stick with it. However, the instructor should adjust it as necessary, such as when updates of software tools are released" (DePietro, 2012). This fosters an educational experience that is current and relevant, and will encourage the creation of original and interesting content.
If possible, use open and free resources for your media and multimedia needs.
Consider different learning styles when choosing media/multimedia for an online classroom. Use a variety of resources so all students can benefit.
Be aware that successfully using media can depend on the student's ability to work with current technology. Try to match the multimedia you use with the anticipated skill level of your students.
Ensure that your media materials are ADA (Americans with Disabilities Act) compliant.
Posting grades and feedback should be limited to college/university secure email systems.
Students should protect identity by creating course-specific names and identifiers with online media tools.
Instructors should ensure that plug-ins are secure before requesting students use them.
There is an exhaustive selection of media and multimedia to choose from.
Media is constantly evolving and becoming obsolete.
Using internet media sources, even in academia, comes with privacy concerns. Many resources -- such as Youtube or GoogleDocs -- have their own private policies.
Copyright may be an issue when trying to find media to use in an online classroom.
Different learning styles may be incompatible with different media.
Students may have a disability that prevents them from using media materials in the course.
Choosing media tools that work best for a given class.
Keeping up with the changes in media and media devices is difficult for both students and instructors.
Many students expect the best, because they are fluent in using the latest technology.
At the same time, students may not have the technology needed for their course.
Some new media requires the latest update of LMS systems, and many colleges and universities cannot afford these updates.
Web-based conference cameras create privacy issues if students don’t want to be on camera (can use text-based chats instead)
Instructors can substitute face-to-face lecture with a variety of tools, such as lecture capture, podcasts, and pre-recorded slide shows with audio.
In 2012, 55% of undergraduates owned a smartphone, and 11% owned a tablet (DePietro, 2012). As this number continues to rise, students now have the chance to use their media devices as portals to their online classrooms.
Using media that includes audio and visual "improves comprehension and understanding" (Stavredes & Herder, 2014, p. 98). This is critical for student success.
Virtual Field Trips: Opportunities and Best Practices
Allow a cost effective way to show students resources available in other locations – including other countries.
Can be used to view archeological field sites, scientific experiments, historical sites, museum displays, etc.
Enable disabled students to see places regardless of physical limitations.
Field trips should:
be directly related to course objectives.
use active learning techniques.
include opportunities for multiple learning styles.
be designed to include effective assessment strategies.
be assigned well in advance if synchronous.
allow for students to view over a few days if asynchronous.
be led by subject matter experts.
Visual Representations and Demonstrations: Opportunities and Recommendations
Instructors can make their own visual representations for their class, or choose from many different instructional resources online.
Students can also make their own visual representations, such as mindmaps (sound familiar?) or timelines.
Try to use free, open resources that do not require permission to utilize, in order to avoid copyright issues.
When using multimedia, words and images should be located together. Students will be able to make connections between the visual and text, and better understand the information.
Engage students by letting them make their own visual representations.
To reflect on after class.
Online Tours of the Louvre
The National WW II Museum
Pedagogy Using Online Tools
“Media technology should be used as knowledge construction tools that students learn with not from” (Jonassen, Carr, & Yueh, 1998).
“Learners function as designers, and the computers function as Mindtools for interpreting and organizing their personal knowledge.”
Other online Mind Tools:
Gliffy is an online diagram editor for creating and sharing flowcharts, network diagrams, floor plans, user interface designs and more. Gliffy is an online tool allowing users to create flowcharts, diagrams, floor plans, and technical drawings.
Note: Gliffy, Glogster, eportfolios are all examples of mind tools. And their use reflects the pedagogical philosophy of constructivism.
Online Visualization Tools
Engaging the brain’s logical and creative sides, visual thinking adds clarity to complex information by quickly revealing connections, relationships, and knowledge gaps that might be missed in a strictly linear form. In visual brainstorming, ideas are recorded quickly and represented visually, then organized to structure the information and identify areas where further thinking and research is needed. The addition of color and images further stimulates thinking and encourages additional probing.
Note: Gliffy, Glogster, eportfolios are all examples of mind tools. And their use reflects the pedagogical philosophy of constructivism.
(Singh, Mangalaraj, & Taneja, 2010, p. 309)