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Child Development: Lecture 1

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Christopher Maymon

on 19 July 2017

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Transcript of Child Development: Lecture 1

Child Development
Domains of Development
Discontinuous
Child Development
. constancy and change from conception through adolescence.
.
Developmental Science
: all changes we experience throughout the lifespan

Cognitive Development
Continuous
Process of gradually adding
to the same types of
skills that were there to begin
with.
Process in which new ways
of understanding and responding to the world
emerge at specific times.
.Stages of development
One Couse of Development
Many Courses of Development
Nature
Nurture
Inborn biological Givens
Genetics
Based on the theory of
evolution
Emphasis on good parenting
Complex forces of the
specific environment we
grow up in
Destiny or Fate
Stability
Plasticity
Early experiences establish
a lifelong pattern of behaviour
favorable life circumstances can help children recover from negative events
Theorists & Philosophers of the Enlightenment
John Locke
1632 - 1704
British 17th Century
philosopher
Considered children to
be born a "
tabula rasa
"
or: "
blank slate
"
Nurture
Children are entirely shaped by their environment!
.Many courses of development
.Plasticity
Very important role of:
Good Parenting
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
1712 - 1778
French 18th century
philosopher
Children are: Noble Savages

Naturally endowed with a sense of right vs. wrong
with an innate plan for
orderly, healthy growth.
Maturation
: a genetically determined, naturally unfolding course of growth
Maturation
Discontinous
Unified: One course of development
Nature
Scientific Beginnings
of the 19th century
Charles Darwin
1809 - 1882
Theory of Evolution
Natural Selection
Emotional & Social Development
Physical Development
Lecturer: Christopher Maymon
When and why did we become monogamous?
90% of bird species are monogamous
< 3% of mammals are monogamous
Explanation
: the requirements in rearing bird offspring constrains adults to remain paired.
young birds =
Altricial
a species whose young cannot move on their own immediately after birth
.....so, why us?
because we are also an altricial species, so they needed to share the parental burdens?
significantly fewer females, so males develop a "mate for life" strategy.
increased rate of male infanticide, so females regulate their mating strategies to favor a "male as bodyguard" strategy
Concrete Evidence
2D: 4D ratio
polygamous
monogamous
influenced by level of testosterone the foetus is exposed to in the womb
changes in intellectual abilities:
. Attention
. Memory
. Academic knowledge
. Imagination & Creativity
. Language
changes in:
. emotional communication
. self-understanding
. knowledge about other people
. Friendships & Intimate relationships
. Moral reasoning
Global changes
Local changes
"Domain - Specific"
"Domain - General"
improvements in one area are specific to the function of that domain, and do not overlap onto other abilities
Improvements in one area have
implications for the function of
other domains
"Qualitative change"
"Quantitative Change"
aspects of development which
are universal.
aspects of development which
are influenced by
context
- culture & socioeconomic status
Theories of Emotional & Social Development
Theories of cognitive development
Sigmund Freud
Psychosexual stages of development
5 stages which integrate the id, ego & superego
. stages deal with development of sexual and aggressive tendencies in childhood
Psychoanalytic perspective
Erik Erikson
Psychosocial stages of development
.lifespan development of socially active and contibuting members of society
Behaviourist perspective
Stimuli --> Responses = All of psychological science
why? because these are the only
directly observable events
When does cognitive development end??
Pujol et al (1993)
at 25 years
corpus callosum
When does Emotional Development End?
Uematsu et al. 2012
Amygdala
grows until age 32
develops 1.5 - 2 years faster in females
first to say development as progressing through various "
stages
"
Environment
= supreme force in development
Social Learning Theory
Albert Bandura
emphasis on the role of
imitation
in children's understanding of behaviour
allows for development of
personal standards
Jean Piaget
stages of cognitive development
Metaphor in Cognition
Brain =
hourglass
telescope
clock
abacus
computer
Information processing
- symbol manipulating system through which information flows
What info processing does well:
talk about where information
literally
goes
What info processing does not do well:
deal with representation
how do we perceive that information as meaningful, vivid and consistent with the world around us?
Full transcript