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Teacher Professionalism

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on 2 June 2014

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Transcript of Teacher Professionalism

Teacher Professionalism
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
JAPAN
Background

Japan, an island nation, developed in isolation from its neighbors more than 2,000 years ago.
Japan is a constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary government; the emperor is a symbol of unity, but has no actual power.
Japan embraced traditional ways, however, conflicts with outside forces convinced the Japanese to modernize.
Educational administration is decentralized, yet the Ministry of Education plays an active role in curriculum development and implementation.
Japan has very low rates of divorce, single parenthood, and poverty.
Students come to school with their basic needs for food, shelter, stability, and attention met.

The particular expertise authority, and autonomy of teachers to exert authority and direction in relation to their work and standard for effective teaching. (Kubow & Fossum, 2007, p.312).
Teachers as Professionals

Society values education, therefore teachers receive support and respect from the public.
Teaching is a high status profession, like medicine and law.
Obtaining a teaching position is competitive. There are significantly more teachers than there are jobs available.
All teachers receive an annual salary increase ranging from $600-$1000 USD.
Teachers have greater autonomy.
Teachers spend 40% of their time doing other duties besides teaching (contacting parents, tutoring, supervising, & counseling students, developing professional development).
Teachers in Japan work alternately 5- and 6-day weeks and are expected to work during summer, winter, & spring break.
Teachers as Professionals

The public is critical of public schools.
Teachers are seen as public servants who must answer to parents, school boards, and administrators.
Administrators are seen as the professionals in education, not the teachers.
Teachers experience less autonomy.
Nearly 1/3 of teachers have other jobs not related to teaching.
Background

The U.S. separated from Great Britain in 1776 and created their own constitution in 1789, becoming the first modern democracy in the world.
Education is extremely decentralized, with primary responsibility falling on the 50 states and the District of Columbia.
The use of competency testing to measure student achievement is widespread; some federal funding has been tied to the use of these tests.
180-day school year
Almost 12.7% of U.S. citizens live below the poverty line (this does not include legal residents and illegal immigrants).
An increasing number of students do not have their basic needs met at home.


Democratic Classroom Characteristics are "characteristics that, when combined, help establish democratic-oriented atmospheres for student learning" (p. 230).
The 8 characteristics are: active participation, avoidance of textbook dominated instruction, reflective thinking, discussion, student decision making and problem solving, individual responsibility, recognition of human dignity, and relevance
Mazurek, K., Winzer, A. (2006) Schooling
around the world: debates, challenges, and practices. Boston, MA: Pearson Education, Inc.
References
Additional Resources
Use of Democratic Classroom Characteristic in Japan
active participation
-Sixty percent of teachers direct their instruction to their less academically able students. Student participation is "a culturally prescribed obligatory act" (p. 231).
avoidance of textbook dominated instruction
- Japan follows a national curriculum, but they are not bound or limited by the textbooks. Teachers devote more time to fewer topics and consider depth over breadth more beneficial for students.
reflective thinking
- Teachers strive for fewer interruptions during instruction and support "vibrant student discussion" (p. 232).
discussion-
Discussions help students challenge, modify, and strengthen their views. They are given many opportunities to present and discuss their ideas to one another.
student decision making and problem solving
- All students, despite socioeconomic status, are able to participate in "higher-order learning, such as decision making and problem solving" (p. 235)
individual responsibility
- Students are often seen taking responsibility for their learning without motivation from the teacher at that time.
recognition of human dignity
- Teachers respect student's backgrounds, view them as capable learners, and set high expectations (p. 236).
relevance
- Teachers tie "learning to students' interests and questions" (p. 236).
active participation
- Teachers target students that are considered above average.
avoidance of textbook dominated instruction
- Teachers tend to try to cover more topics; for example more than 65 topics are represented in United States 8th grade textbooks.
reflective thinking
- Lessons are frequently interrupted by school-wide announcements and pull-out programs.
discussion
- Teachers tend to value and reward quick responses which decreases the student's ability to reflectively respond.
student decision making and problem solving
- Socioeconomic and cultural factors of students often determine their participate in higher-order thought processes in school.
individual responsibility
- Teachers use rewards, punishments or threats to get the students to do what is needed.
recognition of human dignity
- Teachers model this by recognizing the human dignity of each student, while students observe.
relevance
- Information is often taught using rote learning.
http://wenku.baidu.com/view/3a07c536ee06eff9aef807c7

http://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ718115
Use of Democratic Classroom Characteristic in the U.S.
Full transcript