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puja laroia

on 27 April 2010

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Transcript of INDIA

India "India is the cradle of the human race, the birthplace of human speech, the mother of history, the grandmother of legend, and the great grandmother of tradition. Our most valuable and most instructive materials in the history of man are treasured up in India only."

Mark Twain

India is set apart from the rest of Asia by the continental walls of the Himalayas. The subcontinent of India touches three large bodies of water and is easily recognizable on any world map. India is the huge, terrestrial break between Africa and Indonesia. This roughly triangular peninsula defines the Bay of Bengal to the East, the Arabian Sea to the West and the Indian Ocean to the South. India is the puzzle board of 28 states and 7 union territories and holds any kind of landscape imaginable. It has an abundance of mountain ranges and national parks, and its sheer size promises something for everyone. India’s Northern border is dominated by Nepal and the Himalayas, the world’s highest mountain chain. North India, shaped like a throat and two lungs, is the country’s largest region. Falling South along the Indus river valley, the North becomes flatter and more hospitable, widening into the fertile plains of Punjab to the West, and the Himalayan foothills of Uttar Pradesh and the Ganges river valley to the East. Cramped between these two states is the capital city, Delhi. The West coast extends from the Gujarat peninsula down to Goa, and it is lined with some of India’s best beaches. Where is INDIA? Where did Indian Cuisine
Originate from? Indian cuisine first started off with the Muslims, the great Mogul empire including Bengal and Kashmir to the domain, then the Persian Kings. From their courts and palaces came the cuisines that were to manipulate the cooking of all of India. Delhi cuisine is considered the essence of India’s cuisine. The people of Delhi gladly adopted dishes from the Persian cuisine. The people of Delhi also used ice from the Himalayas to cool drinks and prepare chilled dishes. Northern India was ideal for the creation of great cuisine because of its fertility and temperate climate. Subcontinental walls
of the Himalayas Foods in every corner
of the country The North is known for its great wheat and tea. Yet, rice dishes, meats, and fish are also used. There are a great number of wheat breads; all prepared with similar ingredients but prepared differently to add a great variety to the menu. Some wheat breads are Chapattis, Pulkas, Parathas, and Naan. The fabulous Biryani and Pellao are also served. In Punjab we find the Tandoor, which is a clay oven, partially in the ground, used for barbecuing meats and making flat oval breads called Naans. When the weather is hot, spices such as chilli peppers and garlic help the body sweat and cool down. When the weather is cold, spices such as cloves, cinnamon, ginger, black pepper, cardamom, and nutmeg help warm up the body.
There are various dishes of Indian cuisine, but many dishes are cooked in a similar way. The food preparation starts off with frying onions, ginger, garlic, cumin seeds and other spices, in oil on high heat. Then the meat or vegetables, flavourings such as yogurt, and spices such as turmeric are added. The dish then simmers until the ingredients are cooked. At the end, leafy herbs such as cilantro and flavourings such as lemon juice are added. This style is linked to the traditional use of cow dung. For centuries, families would cook by placing a pan on top of patties made from cow dung. This style is like charcoal used in modern-day barbecues. Dung produces a high heat, and burns slowly. Nowadays, middle-class and urban Indians have electric or gas stoves, but many still use cow dung. Indians eat several meals throughout their day. They begin the day at dawn with prayers. Then Chai (Indian tea) and a salty snack are served, after praying. Breakfast takes place after a couple of hours and usually includes special Indian dishes. Meal Patterns Breakfast Dishes Halwa Uppma Lunch consists of one or two cooked vegetable dishes, rice and Chapattis. Around 5 or 6 p.m, an afternoon snack is served which includes tea and Namkeen, which are snacks or appetizers. Dinner is traditionally served late, and includes two or three vegetable dishes along with rice and Chapatti. For a bedtime snack, both adults and children drink hot milk flavoured with sugar and a touch of cardamom. Diwali is the festival of lights. It is a time for renewal, bright homes, games of chance, fireworks and the distribution of sweets to all, which is usually done on any occasion. The festival is celebrated for 5 days according to the lunar Hindu calendar. It begins in late Ashwin, which is September-October and ends in early Kartika, which is October-November. Diwali is celebrated in Hindu and Punjabi homes throughout India. One room in the house is situated with all the family’s special gods and is decorated with glowing dishes off ghee, which is clarified butter, lit as lamps. On the outside of the home, tiny coloured bulbs are strung around the windows and trees. Festival of Lights The goddess Lakshmi, the giver of wealth, is strongly welcomed. Drinks, trays of food and numerous sweets are exchanged between friends and family and fireworks are a main part of the five-day festivities. Two main sweet dishes prepared by most families are Kheer, which is rice pudding with mixed dry fruits such as raisons, almonds, and cashews. The other famous sweet dish is Besan ke Ladoo, which are tightly packed and rolled chickpea flower with sugar. The Ladoo is of special significance because it is considered auspicious to offer Ladoo to Lord Ganesha at the Lakshmi-Ganesh Poojan. Janamashtmi Janmashtmi is the celebration of Lord Krishna, which is believed to be the eighth incarnation of Lord Vishnu. It is celebrated on the eighth day (Ashtami) in the month of Sravana, which is a month full or various festivities. Lord Sri Krishna was born on the 'Rohini' Nakshatram (star). It is generally celebrated in the month of August-September according to the Christian Calendar. Legend has it that Sri Krishna was born on a dark, stormy and windy night to end the rule and mayhem of his maternal uncle, Kansa. It is celebrated with young men climbing upon
each other to make pyramids and reach high
enough to break hanging pots of curd (yogurt).
This atypical practice is based on the legend that
the child Krishna was fond of milk products and
used to steal, with the help of friends, butter
and curds, hung high in earthen pots. Since Lord Krishna was so fond of milk products, his devotees make Kheer, and Rasmalai, which is dumplings made from cottage or ricotta cheese soaked in sweetened, thickened milk flavoured with cardamom, served chilled and garnished with dry fruits. Mathura, the birthplace of Krishna is particulary famous for its grand celebrations. Janmashtami is also celebrated in the states of Maharashtra, Gujarat and Tamil Nadu. India has impacted on Canadian culture from ways of thinking, lifestyles, cuisines, arts, music, and values different from their own. In the present times, Yoga and Indian Food such as Samosas, seem to be making a marked influence, as is "Bhangra" music. Language is also subtly affected as each ethnic group has a different way of expressing the very same sentiment. I have also known Canadians that opted for an Indian-style arranged-marriage! It is rare, but I must admit, it is true! The Indian emphasis on education also has a positive effect. Indians are said to have developed geometric theorems before Pythagoras did in the sixth century B.C. There are many restaurants throughout Canada that give Canadians the chance to savour the flavour of India, as well. In Conclusion Interesing Facts
Chess was invented in India.

Algebra, Trigonometry and Calculus are studies, which originated in India. The 'Place Value System' and the 'Decimal System' were developed in India in 100 B.C.

The game of Snakes & Ladders was created by the 13th century poet saint Gyandev. It was originally called 'Mokshapat'. The ladders in the game represented virtues and the snakes indicated vices. The game was played with cowrie shells and dices. In time, the game underwent several modifications, but its meaning remained the same, i.e. good deeds take people to heaven and evil to a cycle of re-births. The largest employer in the world is the Indian Railways, employing over a million people. The world's first university was established in Takshila in 700 BC. More than 10,500 students from all over the world studied more than 60 subjects. The University of Nalanda built in the 4th century was one of the greatest achievements of ancient India in the field of education.

Ayurveda is the earliest school of medicine known to mankind. The Father of Medicine, Charaka, consolidated Ayurveda 2500 years ago. Until 1896, India was the only source of diamonds in the world Martial Arts were first created in India, and later spread to Asia by Buddhist missionaries
The Baily Bridge is the highest bridge in the world. It is located in the Ladakh valley between the Dras and Suru rivers in the Himalayan mountains. It was built by the Indian Army in August 1982.

Indians use gur or jaggery instead of sugar. Known as ‘medicinal sugar’, this contains minerals, vitamins and iron. Thus, it is one of the most wholesome and healthy forms of sugar known to man. Ever wonder why the Indian curry is so spicy? Well, it’s stuffed with a lot of stuff like turmeric, chilly, garlic, ginger and mint which is good for you.

The flatbreads from India (chapattis and Naans) can be made without oil or yeast. When they are made from whole grains, these items are rich in vitamins and fibers.

Indian food is usually eaten with the fingers. If utensils are used, they are usually spoons and forks. Guests are often served in a particular order: the guest of honour is served first, followed by the men, and the children are served last. Women typically serve the men and eat later. Most commonly, food is put on your plate for you, while in other situations you may be allowed to serve yourself. India & its Architecture
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