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Soobin Moon

on 8 October 2015

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The French Revolution
By Joy and Soobin/Social 20-1
copy and paste as needed and take advantage of an infinite canvas!
Historical Factors
Social Factors
Economic Factors
Geographic Factors
Political Factors
Collective Consciousness
Storming the Bastille
Old Regime
Social Hierarchy/3 Estates
Political Power
Grain Shortages
Absolute Monarchy
Constitutional Monarchy
National Assembly
Declaration of the Rights of Man
Slogan of the Revolution
Women's March
Reactions outside of France
Extreme reactions by Jacobins
Reign of Terror
Tennis Court Oath
Storming the Bastille
Old Regime
Social Hierarchy/3 estates
political power
The Bastille was a Paris prison where it was rumored to be place the king would lock up those who spoke out against him. This prison was originally a royal fortress.
an internal conscious or awareness shared by people-as a defining moment in the French history as a nation
The people feared that the king's soldiers would crush the National Assembly. In order to prepare themselves against the army, the people stormed into the Bastille to get gun powder for the guns they had stolen. On July 14th, 1789, approximately 600 Parisians attacked the Bastille, and broke down the fortress brick by brick by hand.
The storming of the Bastille is considered to be the start of the French Revolution, and this day is celebrated as a national holiday in France.
The storming of the Bastille inspired the other French peoples to take up weapons against the king/nobility. They realized that they were a nation and that they can govern themselves in their own interests.
This painting is by Jean-Pierre Houel. It was painted in 1789. He has painted the image of the people breaking down the Bastille.
The French Society was made up of 3 levels, or "estates".
The first estate was made up of the clergy, the second estate was of aristocrats, and the third estate was of the common people. The nobles provided the peasants with protection in exchange for special rights, taxes and dues, and privaleges which were paid by the peasants (aka feudalism).
96% of the citizens were made up of peasants and the middle class. The third estate was the backbone of the nation and made up most of the population, but they had very little wealth and influence. The common people were the ones who would pay taxes and grow crops. The first and second estate did not have to pay taxes. The first estate represented 1% of the population but controlled/owned 20% of the land. They rented the land to the commoners in exchange for a portion of their crops produced.
The second estate was made up of the nobility. They were only 2% of the population but owned and controlled a vast amount of wealth.
It become a nation myth because it said "We are a nation. We can govern ourselves-in our own interest".
The growing middle class was called the bourgeosie. Members of this group usally lived in towns and cities, where they had become sucessful in business or by practising a craft or professional. They are usually well-educated and well- travelled and many had absorbed new ideas about individual rights. So they introduced ideas about individual rights and the common people agreed with it.
During this period of time, people began to offer new insights and ideas that challenged the way of thinking and way of life under the old regime. They challenged the traditional of the catholic church and explain the world in a scientific perspective. Its did not only challenged the power of the church but the authority of the monarchy too.
Constitutional monarchy
The bourgeoisie were the higher class citizens of the third estate. They were the well educated third estate citizens. It was the members of the bourgeoisie who represented the third estate in the Estates-Generals meetings.
People criticized the Old Regime based on the Divine Right Theory, which gained popularity through the writings of the philosophers and scientist. There are some main philosophers:
; who argued for freedom of thought and tolerance of religious worship.
; Urged that the 3 branches of government (executive, legislative, judicial) should be seperated so that no person can accumulate too much power.
; believed the government should exist only with the consent, thus argued against the Divine Right Theory.
; "man is born free but everywhere is in chain." was written. [ AKA the heavy burden and the inability to prove the peasant condition in life meant that they were little more than slaves]. Believed the government should established on the basis of a "social contact" that could establish a limited monarchy with a king who was answerable to the nation citizens.

Painting of Voltaire in 1718 by Nicolas de Largillière.
painting of Montesqieu by an unknown artist
painting of Locke by Godfrey Kneller
Rousseau in 1753, by Maurice Quentin de La Tour
Bread was a important part of the French diet. When France was hit by droughts, floods and the bitterly cold winter, grain crops were not able to grow. Therefore, the price of the flour rose drastically. In order to protect and feed their children, many women participated in bread and grain riots. Despite the food shortage in the countryside, the Monarch continued to live a luxurious life style.
During this time, there was a rumour going around about what Marie Antoinette said when she was asked what should be done about the famine in the land. This is where the famous "Let them eat cake" statement came from. Antoinette was abhored by the people after this, but in reality, the queen never said "Let them eat cake". In fact, it is said that there is a possibility that the queen didn't know about the famine and the grain shortages in the first place.
This is a painting of what most likely would have seen in the eyes of someone who was at the marketplace to witness the riots.
This political system was established in the Kingdom of France from approximately the 15th century until the later 18th century. Under the regime, the king/queen had an absolute power, everyone was a subject of the king of France as well as a member of an estate and province. In the 18th century people were divided into three estates : clergy, nobility, and others (the Third Estate). There was no national citizenship.
The picture above is representing the French social hierarchy. The common people were the ones feeding/supporting the higher ups. The nobles depended on the common people for their wealth and food.
The French economy was in chaos by the late 1780s. The decade of war had drained the treasury, and the country was nearly bankrupt. To raise money, Louis XVI decided that the people, including French aristocrats, should pay more taxes. When this idea was rejected by the aristocrats, the commoners rose to give themselves more power.
The estate that one was born in would be the estate that they would remain in and eventually die in. Although it wasn't common, there were times when one would buy their way into the next estate.
The Estate-General was composed of representatives which were elected by the 3 estates.
In the past, the three estates had always met ane voted separately. The majority vote of each estate was then expressed as a single vote, so the First and Second estate could always outnumber the Third estate by 2 to 1. The third estate, thinking that this was an unfair system
(for they believed that they were the correct representation of the people)
, decided that the past system needed to change.
Re-opening of the Estates-General on May 5, 1789 in the Grands Salles des Menus-Plaisirs in Versailles. The meeting in 1789 was the first meeting since 1614.
The Tennis Court Oath was an oath sworn by the third estate back in 1789. Louis XVI's plan to persuade the people to approve new taxes had failed when both the first and second estate voted against the new taxes that Louis XVI had thought of to solve the debt France had. When it appeared that the third estate would be the ones paying the new taxes alone, the third estate representatives (who were mostly lawyers and other members of the bourgeoisie) were determined to change the system and create a constitution that set out equal rights for all men. This was when the Tennis Court Oath was sworn. "We are the only group that represents the nation."
Voltaire was a pen name used by the famous writer/thinker Francois-Marie Arouet (1694~1778). Voltaire is known as one of the most influential philosophers. He was known for making fun of the nobility, and was also thrown into the Bastille twice during his life.

"In general, the art of government consists in taking as much money as possible from one class of citizens to give to another."
"Man is free at the moment he wishes to be." ~Voltaire
Drawing by Jacques-Louis David of the Tennis Court Oath. David later became a deputy in the National Convention in 1792
In the spring and summer of 1789, parts of the country were hit by drought-- a long period of dry weather, after a giant flood caused by the snow from during the winter. It was one of the conditions which destroyed the crops and created grain shortages.
Before the revolution had started, France was still under an "absolute monarchy", meaning that the king and queen had ultimate power over the people. The king was in charge of the people's well being, and was in charge of making laws. At the time of the revolution the king of France was Louis XVI, and his queen was Marie Antoinette, who was a member of the Austrian royal family. The two had been married to in hopes to connect Austria and France. The king and queen of France were not very good rulers and received a lot of hate from the people. The king and queen were seen as obstacles in the citizen's views of a "perfect nation". The absolute monarchy was brought down in 1791 and was replaced with a constitutional monarchy. In 1792, the constitutional monarchy was replaced with a republic, and the king and queen were exiled in 1793 for treason.
A constitutional monarchy is a system of government where the king still has power, but not as much as in an absolute monarchy. The king or queen still acts as the head of the country, but it was the elected Parliament that made and passed legislation. The king held limited power. The absolute monarchy was brought down and replaced with an absolute monarchy on September 3rd, 1791 to September 21st, 1792. The country is ruled by the monarch that is controlled by a constitution, therefore it is called a "Constitutional Monarchy", or a "Limited Monarchy".
Around the time of the French Revolution, the American British colonies (United States of America) was fighting for their independence with the British. France and Britain had always been trying to get each others heads for years and years, and Louis XVI thought that helping the United States was the perfect chance to "piss" the British off. Louis XVI borrowed money from his people and sent off his armies to fight in the American War of Independence.
In the late 1780s, the French economy was in absolute chaos. The war had brought France to the brink of bankruptcy. King Louis XVI decided that the people should pay more taxes, and that the "people" should include the nobility/aristocrats.
This declaration declared the equal rights of men.
No individual may exercise any authority which does not preceed directly from the nation
. This declaration unfortunately only declared equal rights for people of the male sex. Women were not included in the declaration. Although there was a time when a men and women version was proposed, it was rejected.
Declaration of the Rights of Men and of the Citizen, 1789
the slogan was 'Liberté, égalité, fraternité' which mean liberty , equality and fraternity(brotherhood). It was said on December 5th, 1790 by Maximilien Robespierre in one of his speeches.
In order to prevent the country from being bankrupt, the king decided that the people should pay more taxes. This taxation issue brought the "Estates-General" back together. The first and second estate didn't want to have to pay taxes, and the third estate believed that the other two wealthy estates should also pay taxes as well, instead of it just being the third estate with the higher taxes. Many people of the third estate were already poor enough, raising taxes would even worsen their situation.
A cahiers, (also known as Cahiers de doleances) was a book where each estate would list their complaints, recommendations and grievances. They would bring this book with them when the estate representatives would come together at the royal palace in 1789. These cahiers were then presented to the king.
As the revolution took hold in France, the ruling elites in other countries watched with growing fear. They were afraid that the event in France might inspire the people of their own country to take similar actions. When news of the ill treatment in the hands of the revolutionaries reached the other rulers, they feared greatly of the revolutionaries to the point where Austria and Prussia invaded France to restore the monarchy. The revolutionaries fought the Austrian and Prussian armies off, and in order to ensure that the gains made in the revolution would not be lost, the king and queen were executed.
In 1791, the absolute monarchy system was taken down. A constitution was also created by the National Assembly. The constitution kept the monarchy, but power resided in the Legislative Assembly. The Legislative Assembly was elected by indirect voting. France had gained a constitutional monarchy.
Around the time when the king was demanding for higher taxes, many parts of France were experiencing severe weather. The winter of 1788-1789 was extremely cold. The snow blocked roads and made travel and trading impossible. When this snow melted, it caused flooding in certain areas of France. After this flood, France was hit by a drought in the spring and summer of 1789. The extreme weather was destroying the grain crops and created a shortage of grain in France. As a result, the prices of flour skyrocketed. Bread was a very important part of the French diet. When bread became too expensive for some, many began to steal bread and attack wagons carrying grain/grain supplies. Riots happened all over the countryside.
Not everyone in France was in support of the way the revolution was going. Many were shocked by some of the brutal acts that were taking place and by the execution of the king and queen. Fearing rebellion within the country, the revolutionary leaders began a "crackdown" that is known as the "Reign of Terror". Between the period of September 5th, 1793 to July 28th, 1794. The revolutionaries used fear to control the people of France. Anyone who was even rumoured to have spoke in favour of the king or the church were exiled. Anyone who said or did something against the revolution were sentenced to death with the charge of treason. This period of terror lasted for about 11 months.
Also known as "Absolutism", an Absolute Monarchy is a government system where the monarch hold ultimate power over the people. The king and queen held all of the power. The monarchy was not limited or restrained by laws/constitution.

This is the Guillotine, which was a contraption that beheaded people. Many people, such as the king and queen, and Robespierre, were executed using this device.
Before the National Assembly, each estate always met and voted separately. The majority vote of each estate was expressed as a single vote, so the first and second estate would always out-number the third estate 2-1. The third estate found this to be extremely unfair, for they believed that it was the third estate who properly represented the people of France. When Louis XVI proposed for the first and second estate to pay taxes, the first and second estate was against this idea while the third was estate was in support of this idea. Although the majority of the French population was voting for the new taxes, because of their system of "one vote per estate", the third estate never got what they wanted. The people of the third estate became determined to change the system and create a constitution that gave every man equal rights.
A republic is a system of government where representatives (which were elected by the people) divides government power.
ie. legislation executive, judicial
Some examples of republics are South Korea, The United States of America, Argentina.
In France, absolute monarchy slowly emerged in the 16th century, and was firmly established during the 17th century. Around the time of the French Revolution, the monarchs would live at the palace of Versailles. The monarch was given power to rule by "divine right", God gave them the right to rule over the land. It was believed that challenging the authority of the king was to challenge the authority of God. To become a part of the monarch, you had be part of the royal bloodline.
France was the first European Country to change from an absolute monarchy to a republic.
In France, writers, artists, philosophers, and others often gathered and established/discussed new ideas (ex. liberty, happiness, religious freedom, individual rights) and questioned the established order. Voltaire was a part of this group. These ideas were usually published in newspapers or books.
Voltaire spoke what the other people of the third estate had always thought about in their minds but never had the courage to say it out loud. Voltaire, in a way, spoke for these people.
Voltaire argued to defend the right of freedom of thought, religious freedom, free trade, civil liberties, and social reform. Voltaire also fought against the limitations of censorship, religious dogma, intolerance and the institutions of his time.
This is a recent present day picture of a flood. Like so, the water from the melted snow would have covered the pathways and fields and filled houses with water, making it very difficult to navigate properly and try to recover from the bitter winter.
Droughts make it nearly impossible to grow anything on the land. The soil loses moisture and cracks, like shown above in the picture.
Like shown above, the palace of Versailles was a big and beautiful palace. Unfortunately, it took a lot of time and money to build (money coming from the people).
An "emigre" is a person who has "migrated out" of a country because of political conditions. During the French Revolution, many nobles fled France, seeking foreign help to restore the old regime. They hoped for a counterrevolution as they waited in neighbouring countries. King Louis XVI also sent some of the most conservative members of his court out of the country in fear that they may be assassinated (The king's youngest brother, the queen's best friend). The king and his direct family also attempted to flee the country and seek help in foreign countries, but they were caught and tried with treason. An "emigre" is similar to a current day "refugee".
The old regime had a social system that looked somewhat like the image above.
As you can tell from the paintings above, the king and queen enjoyed incredibly pompous lives, which affected the people in the third estate's lifestyles and encouraged them to bring the royal family down.
During the time of the monarch, the king was allowed to borrow money from his people, but he did not have to pay them back, because he was the king.
The third estate believed that as a nation, the nobility should also have to pay taxes, but the nobility refused to pay taxes. This only encouraged the third estate to change the French system.
Un Dîner De Philosophes painted by Jean Huber Voltaire.
The middle class of France always felt that their estate was being unfairly treated. They wanted a government where the majority of the population (the common men) had a say in government. In order to acheive this republic system, the people started the French Revolution. In 1792, they succeeded in developing a republic in the country of France.
As shown in the painting, the war brought many people to lose money and lose the ability to buy food for themselves.
When the third estate continued to lose 2-1 to the first and second estates, the middle men were once again reminded that the French system had to be changed. They were the majority of the country. They needed to have a say in what happened in France. This picture is a representation of the meetings that discussed the issue of the new taxes.
The Jacobins, also known as the Jacobin Club, was founded in October 6, 1789 and dissolved on November 6, 1795. They were a famous and influencial political group of anti-royalists. After the fall of the monarchy, Robespierre became a central figure in the Jacobins. They executed the King and the Queen to represent the end of the Old Regime. They continued the violent action by executing and arresting
(200,000 people were arrested and 17,000 were sentenced to death)
citizens who questioned the authority of the Jacobins. They also burnt down the catholic church and changed the catholic calendar. (The calender was changed to have 10 days in a week instead of 7 so the people wouldn't know when Sunday was, and the number of days in a month also changed.) The Jacobins were the ones that wanted to execute the king.
Seal of the Jacobin Club, 1789–-1792.
Although cahiers listed the grievances of the common people, they were not meant as a direct challenge to the Old Regime. They were seen more as suggestions of reforms. Still, cahiers brought the French people to think about the problems France had and how they wanted to solve them.
This system gave the people a voice in government. These cahiers were also used to guide the elected representatives in what to discuss at the Estates-General.
<- This picture shows how a page of the cahiers would look
The representatives of the third estate of the Estates-General formed this assembly and swore the "Tennis Court Oath", stating that they were the only group that represented the nation. . When rumors about the possibility of troops coming to attack the National Assembly emerged, the people stormed into the Bastille a few days later in order to arm themselves.
Collective Consciousness
The Tennis Court Oath is known to have earned its name because this oath was sworn in a tennis court.
This is one of the propaganda posters published during the french revolution. The "death"part of the slogan was written down due to the reign of terror.
On October 5th, 1789, an angry mob of nearly 7,000 working women armed with pitchforks, pikes and muskets marched in the rain from Paris to Versailles. It was said that the queen was keeping grain for herself in the palace, and that was where the famous rumour/quote came from. The women who believed the statement "Let them eat cake.", stormed into the palace to find Marie Antoinette to tear her into pieces. Luckily, Antoinette was not killed at this time, but the royal family and most of the French Assembly had to leave Versailles and return to Paris with these women. The royal family were then kept (in captivity) in a different palace which was located inside Paris.
The French Constitution of 1791 was the first written constitution in France
The constitution set out equal rights for all men, and
was created after Louis XVI's plan to approve new
taxes failed.
This is a painting of what one would have seen if they were a part of the women's march, on the way to the Palace of Versailles. It is known for the women to have carried weapons on their way to the palace. On their way back from Versailles, they had pikes with the soldier's heads.
This propaganda poster
pretty much says "give us the republic or give us death." -->
This is how the French constitution looked.
A painted representation of Prussia and Austria invading France.
Armée des Émigrés (army of the emigres)
Some examples of the things written on cahiers were fair taxes, no feudalism, no special privilegs, and to keep the king.
Like shown in the picture, the king and the parliament ruled together as one.
the painting showed that the people of the 3rd estate need to pay more taxes and fees to pay the debt. In the painting, the facial expresssion of the peasant shows discontent.
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