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The ancient river valley civilizations
Transcript of The ancient river valley civilizations
Some are traders and merchants
Ships carries cargoes such as cotton, grain, copper, cloth, pearls and ivory cones
Around 6,000 B.C.E is when farming begins
Farmers grew wheat, beans, barely, rice, sesames, bananas, mustard, black pepper, and cotton crops
Floods are common in the Indus River valley
In order to prevent their crops and fertile soil from being destroyed, the farmers built dirt walls and canals from washing away the fields.
In the north, where there was a dry plain, farmers domesticated cattle and water buffalo instead of growing crops. By: Thao Ho,
Elizabeth Chau The ancient river valley civilization Sun quickly dried mud so they dug irrigation ditches to carry water to their fields and leaders and laws of building the ditches were needed to organize the plans Geographical Determinant No natural barriers so they built city walls with mud bricks and were able to trade with people of the mountains and desert for products they lacked Lacked building materials so they used mud bricks to build and interacted with other cultures for materials needed to make their tools and buildings Geography Economy Mesopotamia The agriculture are located in the Fertile Crescent The Tigris and Euphrates ricers define Mesopotamia, which means
“between the rivers” in Greek. •Grain, textile, and oils were taken from Babylonia to foreign cities and exchanged for timber, wine, valuable stones and metals. Temple had tall towers; they believe that it connects heaven to Earth. Government Priest organized irrigation projects and demanded a portion of farmers’ crops as tax 3000 b.c. to 2500 b.c. city-state were ruled under dynasties Women have property and pursues most of occupations of city life and could join lower ranks in priesthood Offered riches, Ziggurats, wine, food, and sacrifices of animals to keep gods happy Priest as go-between with the gods complex religion About 3000 gods controlled various forces of nature Ziggurat was a place of worship and was city hall Gods do everything humans do but are immortal and powerful and Humans are their servants Souls go to the “land of no return” a gloomy place between the ancient sea and the earth’s crust with little to no help from gods China Geography Egypt Annual flooding brought fertile soil and water necessary for farming so Egypt settlements settled near the Nile Floods from Nile usually predictable, Egyptians used irrigation ditches to water field Vast desert around as natural barriers and defense from invaders but also lowered interaction with others, forcing them to stay close to the river Government Pharaoh’s responsibility for the well being of the kingdom and their duty to promote truth and justice Then King Menes established capital Memphis in between the lower and the upper Egypt, also establishing the first Egyptian dynasty "India - Government." India - Government. N.p., n.d. Web. 05 Sept. 2012. <http://www.kidsnewsroom.org/elmer/infoCentral/frameset/civilizations/india/gov/index.html>.
"Library." Chinese Religion Origins, Chinese Religion History, Chinese Religion Beliefs. N.p., n.d. Web. 05 Sept. 2012. <http://www.patheos.com/Library/Chinese-Religion.html>.
"OracleBones/Mandate of Heaven." OracleBones/Mandate of Heaven. N.p., n.d. Web. 05 Sept. 2012. <http://bhoffert.faculty.noctrl.edu/teaching/foundationsofchinesecivilization.html>.
"342 World History: Early." 342 World History: Early. N.p., n.d. Web. 05 Sept. 2012. <http://www.public.iastate.edu/~cfford/342worldhistoryearly.html>.
"Map Pictures." Ancient Egypt Maps. N.p., n.d. Web. 05 Sept. 2012. <http://www.wpmap.org/ancient-egypt-maps/>.
"A History of Our People: From Early Man to Early Civilizations." Early Civilizations. N.p., n.d. Web. 05 Sept. 2012. <http://ed101.bu.edu/StudentDoc/current/ED101fa10/gjdanis/Content5.html>. Complex Religion Polytheistic Total worship 2,000 gods and goddesses Built temples to honor the powerful ones Believed they would be judged for their deeds when they died Kings, called pharaohs, ruled as gods Tombs are more important then Kings palace since there they would rule eternally mummification Bibliography Indus Geography Mountains, Hindu Kush, Karakoram, and Himalayia, were natural barriers against invaders Large architectural structure are use in temples for deceased
Mud, bricks, stone, copper, limestone, bronze, and granite are the material that are used
Pottery, buildings, weapons, stone artifacts and chariots are often made Art Architecture Technology Farming and fishing was their source for wealth and money
Practice mining to find valuable metals
Egypt economy was based on agriculture and commerce
Egypt is one of the majority nations that are heavily taxed
Mostly relied mainly on profits in the structure of industry and taxes Egypt economy were mostly based on agriculture such as – growing lettuce, barley, beans...
Trading is the most important economy in Egypt
Gold, minerals, wheat, papyrus and barely are their main export.
Bees were mostly raised by farmers
Glass making is known as the earliest Economy Winter monsoons blows dry air through Indus while spring monsoons blow moist air in rain clouds causing conflict for farmers River sometimes change its course causing floods to be unpredictable Indus River provided link to ocean and enable trades with others Strong central government Government Wealthy society that could provide unnecessary goods Rajahs are ruler of the cities Priest in charged of government because everyone looked up to them Plumbing and sewage systems and more equality Complex Religion Economy Mother goddess, worship of cattle
Early image of Shiva, a major Indian god
Links to modern Hindu culture
Discipline was needed for schooling but schooling wasn’t too big of a deal to them Most of china’s land is farmable while the rest are natural barriers Isolation also caused settlers to make their own goods rather than trading it with others Floods are beneficial towards villages or extremely deadly, able to wipe out a whole village so work on projects for flood control and irrigation ditches Built earthen wall around cities for protection against the constant wars About 2000 b.c. first dynasty (Xia) Government Palaces and tombs for kings Mandate of heaven (the right to take the throne from the current emperor granted by heaven since they had been poor rulers) Feudalism (nobles/lords govern land belonging to the emperor of the Zhou dynasty though they became less dependent towards the emperors and constantly fought with each other to expand their territory) Father/husband has strong authority in families Complex Religion The family ancestors’ spirits ability to bring fortune or disaster to the family but not gods
Respect and scarified in their honor
Through ancestors, they consulted gods
They believed in the great god, Shang Di, and lesser gods
Consult with gods through oracle/animal bones and the shell of turtles
Imprinting the question on the bones/shells, the priest heats it and interprets the cracks to see the gods response.
Diverse religion and practices Art Architecture Technology 1st people known to the study of heavens, use metalworking, create laws, and gathering written records
1st chemists by using chemicals to make soap and remedies
Developed a number system by using their fingers
Most of their arts are based on the gods, kings, and jewelry The writing method began with signs or picture drawn on clay tablets.
Scribes drew the sign on soft clay tablets using a pointed tool, probably made out of a reed.
It is at this point that the signs became what we call cuneiform.
The barley sign had to be written using several wedges.
Cuneiform writing was used to record a variety of information such as temple activities, business and trade. Writing Around 3100 B.C. people began to trace the amounts of diverse crops.
The most important crops in southern Mesopotamia is the Barley. Agriculture Iron tools began to replace old wood, stone, and bronze tools
Farmers produced much more food than usual
Peasant begins to grow more crops such as soy beans
When commerce expanded, the Chinese began to use money for the first time
Used copper coins which made trading much easier than before
New roads and canals is the advantage to help merchants expand in their trading area
In 1000 BC, Chinese discovered how to make silk and different colors of dyes Economy Earliest writing 3400 B.C.
Latest date inscription in hieroglyph made on great post of a temple in 398 A.D.
Hieroglyph script was used mainly for formal inscription on walls of temples and tombs
In some inscriptions the glyphs are full of color and very detailed but in others they are simply outlined
Hieratic script was used everyday Writing They made pots, wrote poetry, and sang song based on the rivers
Paper cut is the important emerged in china art form
Craftsman used hand tools to make small daggers and knives, which they made it as a nice ornaments Art Architecture Technology First recognizable chinese writing about 3,000 years ago
Pictographs were on pottery and jades
the symbols represented the clans/families emblems that showed their ownership
Earliest form of writing called oracle bones script dates back to 1500 through 1000 B.C.E. Writing Scholars believed that they had an excellent craftsmen, weaving, skilled in pottery, and metal working
Have several small statues that they believed to be the female gos
Found bowls made of bronze and silver, and many ornaments and beads
People of the Indus River Valley are skilled in pottery, weaving, and metal working Art Architecture Technology Archaeologists have found masses of ancient writings, ranging from treaties and tax roll to business and marriage contracts
The earliest writing was made up of pictogram simple drawings that looked like objects they represented
Symbols were added later on Writing