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The 60s- World Events
Transcript of The 60s- World Events
Known for the breakout out of The Beatles, who've changed music in the United States forever, the Vietnam War, and it's overall flamboyance thanks to hippies and flower power (a social revolution...), the decade from 1960 to 1969 had numerous life changing events that influenced the world.
There are 2 specific events of the 1960s I researched, which are definitely quite important, memorable, and have changed our world. I also have done some research on John F. Kennedy, who is kind of the 'link' between my two events.
JFK- Who became the 35th president of the U.S.A. on January 20th, and some of his accomplishments as president.
Brief Overview of JFK's achievements:
Establishing the Peace Corps
The Space Race (with Russia), goal to put man on the moon. (Achieved in 1969)
Advancing Civil Rights (small but notable part)
In May of 1961, Kennedy announced his goal to put a man on the moon by the end of the decade. After rejections of participating with the Soviet Union, it became a Space Race to who will step onto the moon first.
1969, 6 years after Kennedy's assassination, Neil Armstrong was the first person to step foot on the moon.
Although the African American Civil Rights Movement was in action from 1955-1968, a very strong moment in its history was in 1963, when Martin Luther King Jr. delivered his speech, 'I Have A Dream'.
Of course, King was indubitably deeply involved with protests for black's rights, Kennedy also pitched in and one year later, the Civil Rights Act was signed into law (by president Lyndon B. Johnson, after Kennedy's death).
Born May 29th, 1917 in Brookline, Massachusetts, John Fitzgerald "Jack" Kennedy, referred to by his initials JFK, was the 35th President of the United States, serving from Jan 20th 1961 until his assassination on Nov 22nd 1963.
After his military service as a lieutenant, Kennedy defeated Vice President Richard Nixon in the 1960 U.S. presidential election.
He was the youngest elected to the office, at the age of 43. After succeeding Eisenhower for president, he was the only president to have won a Pulitzer Prize, the second youngest President (Theodore Roosevelt) and the first person born in the 20th century to serve as President.
Worldwide events during his presidency comprised the Space Race, the African American Civil Rights Movement, and early stages of the Vietnam War (Lyndon B. Johnson, at the time serving as vice, would handle the war as president later.)
Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis (1953)
JFK Jr., Caroline, Patrick Bouvier and Arabella
Harvard College with Bachelors in Science, 1940
Sept, 1941, after medical disqualification for the Army (chronic lower back problems), joined the U.S. Navy.
12:30 pm, CST on November 22, 1963, shortly after his 1000th day or presidency, President John F. Kennedy was assassinated in Dallas, Texas, aged 46. He was headed to Texas for a political trip to smooth over frictions in the Democratic Party between liberals.
He was shot in the upper back once, then killed with a terminating shot to the head. He was (obviously) quickly rushed to the hospital but unfortunately pronounced dead at a half hour later.
President Kennedy died younger than any U.S. president to date. Lee Harvey Oswald, an employee of the Texas School Book Depository from which the shots were suspected to have been fired, was arrested on charges for the murder of a local police officer and was subsequently charged with the assassination of Kennedy. He denied shooting anyone, yet was charged with the crime, but was shot and killed two days later by Jack Ruby before a trial could take place.
The assassination proved to be an important moment in U.S. history because of its impact on the nation and the ensuing political repercussions.
January 20th, 1961, John F. Kennedy was sworn in as the 35th President of the United States of America.
"Ask not what your country can do for you; ask what you can do for your country."
One of his first presidential acts, JFK had asked Congress to permit the creation of the Peace Corps, on March 1st.
Peace Corps is a program that allows Americans to volunteer and help underdeveloped nations, in different areas like education, farming, health care and construction.
By March 1963, this organization had 5,000 members and double that the following year. Since 1961, over 200,000 volunteers have unified with the Peace Corps, aiding in 139 different countries.
Even though the Supreme Court of the United States had ruled in 1954 in 'Brown vs. Board of Education' a racial segregation in schools, (where separate public schools for black and white students should be established), many negroes did not obey. The Court also inaugurated segregation in other public facilities (restaurants, buses, bathrooms, beaches, even courtrooms) but disobedience continued nonetheless.
President Kennedy had verbally endorsed racial integration and civil rights. June 11th, 1963, he gave his acclaimed civil rights address on national television and radio, inaugurating his initiative for civil rights legislation - to provide equal means of entry to public schools and other facilities, and greater conservation of voting rights. These proposals became part of the Civil Rights Act in 1964. (Law signed by President Lyndon B. Johnson).
with the Soviet Union
"First, I believe that this nation should commit itself to achieving the goal, before this decade is out, of landing a man on the Moon and returning him safely to the Earth. No single space project in this period will be more impressive to mankind, or more important for the long-range exploration of space; and none will be so difficult or expensive to accomplish."
A race between the Soviet Union and the United States to land on the moon had begun.
It all started on October 4, 1957, when the Soviet Union launched Sputnik 1, the world's first artificial satellite, into Earth's orbit. This led to a instantaneous series of events where both the US and the Soviet Union assemble other projects and plans and fought towards the goal of 'beating' the other in space technology.
For reasons of strategy and prestige, President Kennedy was eager for the United States to take the lead in the Space Race. He announced the goal of landing a man on the Moon before the end of the decade in a speech on May 25th, 1961. He stated:
On January 2 President JFK was praised by NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Coloured People) Executive Secretary Roy Wilkins for his "personal role" in advancing civil rights.
On July 1, 1962, the site was renamed the Launch Operations Center, on November 29, 1963, the facility received its current name by Executive Order 11129 following Kennedy's death.
Located in Florida, the Kennedy Space Center was formed on July 1st 1962, and has over 13,100 employees as of 2011. Since 2010, the center's annual budget is US $350 million.
It has been the launch site for every US human space flight since 1968.
The reason the JFK Space Center was created was for the changing needs of the manned space program Apollo 11, when it was in competition with the Soviet Union.
Kennedy's speech at Rice University on September 12, 1962 included the following statements:
"No nation which expects to be the leader of other nations can expect to stay behind in this race for space." ... "We choose to go to the Moon in this decade and do the other things, not because they are easy, but because they are hard."
The US President was determined to put a man on the moon before the Soviet Union.
In a meeting with NASA administrator James E. Webb and other officials, November 21st 1962, Kennedy explained how the moon project was important for reasons of international prestige. Costs for the Apollo program were expected to reach $40 billion.
Almost six years after JFK's death, on July 20th, 1969, Apollo 11 landed the first manned spacecraft on the Moon. It carried mission Commander Neil Armstrong, Command Module Pilot Michael Collins, and Lunar Module Pilot Buzz Aldrin, the first humans on the Moon. They have successfully fulfilled President John F. Kennedy's goal: “I believe that this nation should commit itself to achieving the goal, before this decade is out, of landing a man on the Moon and returning him safely to the Earth."
In January 1961, Kennedy had suggested international cooperation in space. Khrushchev (first secretary in Communist Party) declined, as the Soviets did not want to reveal the status of their rocketry and space capabilities.
Soviet cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin became the first person to fly in space on April 12 1961. This event reinforced American fears about being left far behind in a technological space competition with the Soviet Union.
Soviet Union also at the time scored a multitude of other successes, but by the middle of the decade the US was taking the lead.
Once again in a September 1963 speech before the United Nations, Kennedy urged cooperation between the Soviets and Americans in space. Khrushchev declined again, and the Soviets did not commit to a manned lunar mission until 1964.
Feb. 20th, Ranger 8 crashes into the Moon, after a successful mission of photographing possible landing sites for the Apollo program astronauts.
Jun. 3, Gemini 4, Astronaut Edward Higgins White makes the first U.S. space walk.
Dec. 24, U.S. spacecraft Apollo 8 enters orbit around the Moon. Astronauts Frank Borman, Jim Lovell and William A. Anders become the first humans to see the far side of the Moon and planet earth as a whole.
May 18th, Apollo 10 (Tom Stafford, Gene Cernan, John Young) is launched, on the full dress-rehearsal for the Moon landing.
May 22nd, Apollo 10's lunar module flies to within 15,400 m of the Moon's surface.
May 26th, Apollo 10 returns to Earth, after a successful 8-day test of all the components needed for the upcoming first manned Moon landing.
Jul. 16th, Apollo 11 (Neil Armstrong, Buzz Aldrin, Michael Collins) lifts off toward the first landing on the Moon.
Jul. 20th, The lunar module Eagle lands on the lunar surface. An estimated 500 million people worldwide watch in awe as Neil Armstrong takes his historic first steps on the Moon at 02:56 UTC, the largest television audience for a live broadcast at that time.[
Jul. 24th, The Apollo 11 astronauts return from the first successful Moon landing, and are placed in biological isolation for several days, on the chance they may have brought back lunar germs. The airless lunar environment is later determined to preclude microscopic life.
Jun. 16th, Vostok 6 carries Soviet cosmonaut Valntina Tereshkova, the first woman into space.
Mar. 13, Cosmonaut Aleksei Leonov leaving his spacecraft Voskhod 2 for 12 minutes, becomes the first person to walk in space.
Feb. 3rd, The unmanned Soviet Luna 9 spacecraft makes the first controlled rocket-assisted landing on the Moon.
Mar. 31st, The Soviet Union launches Luna 10, which later becomes the first space probe to enter orbit around the Moon. (apr. 3)
Civil Rights Movement
Martin Luther King Jr.
Michael King Junior (better known as Martin Luther King Jr.) was born on January 15, 1929 in Atlanta, Georgia, and was assassinated on April 4, 1968 (aged 39) in Memphis Tennessee. King was an American clergyman, activist, and prominent leader in the African-American Civil Rights Movement.
He is best known for his role in the advancement of civil rights in the United States, using nonviolent methods.
In 1964 Oct. 14, King became the youngest person to receive the Nobel Peace Prize for his work in ending racial segregation.
All I'm saying is simply this, that all life is interrelated, that somehow we're caught in an inescapable network of mutuality tied in a single garment of destiny. Whatever affects one directly affects all indirectly. For some strange reason, I can never be what I ought to be until you are what you ought to be. You can never be what you ought to be until I am what I ought to be. This is the interrelated structure of reality.
—Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.
His I Have a Dream speech is a 17 minute public speech delivered on August 28, 1963, in which he called for racial equality and an end to discrimination.
King believed that organized, nonviolent protest against the system of southern segregation would lead to black equality and voting rights. Televised daily deprivation and indignities suffered by southern blacks and segregationist violence and harassment of civil rights workers and marchers, produced a wave of sympathetic public opinion that convinced the majority of Americans that the Civil Rights Movement was the most important issue in American politics in the early 1960s.
King organized and led marches for blacks' right to vote, desegregation, labor rights and other basic civil rights. Most of these rights were successfully enacted into the law of the United States with the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the 1965 Voting Rights Act.
At 6:01 p.m., April 4, 1968, King was shot. He was pronounced dead at St. Joseph's Hospital at 7:05 p.m. King's autopsy revealed that though only 39 years old, he had the heart of a 60-year-old man, perhaps a result of the stress of 13 years in the civil rights movement.
On June 8th James Earl Ray was arrested for the assassination of Martin Luther King Jr.
King was posthumously awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1977 and Congressional Gold Medal in 2004 and Martin Luther King, Jr. Day was established as a U.S. federal holiday in 1986.
The African-American Civil Rights Movement (1955–1968) concerns the social movements in the US venturing to put an end to racial discrimination against African Americans, and restoring their voting rights.
In the range from 1955 to 1968, nonviolent protests and civil disobedience created crisis situations between activists and government authorities. (Marches, boycotts)
2 important achievements from the movement include: Civil Rights Act of 1964, that banned discrimination based on "race, color, religion, or national origin" in employment practices and public accommodations; the Voting Rights Act of 1965, that restored and protected voting rights.
Other Notable Events
• October 8 – Sam Cooke and his band are arrested after trying to register at a "whites only" motel in Louisiana. In the months following, he records the song "A Change Is Gonna Come".
• August 21 – The Medal of Honor is posthumously awarded to James Anderson, Jr.—he is the first black U.S. Marine to be awarded the Medal of Honor. (MOVIE- Men of Honour)
• October 16 - In Mexico City, black American athletes Tommie Smith and John Carlos raise their arms in a black power salute after winning, respectively, the gold and bronze medals in the Olympic men's 200 metres.
The Space Race
African American Civil Rights Movement
August 28, 1963, Washington: A gathering of people, predominantly African Americans for the civil rights march on 'Washington for Jobs and Freedom'. The march made specific demands: an end to racial segregation in public facilities, a law prohibiting racial discrimination in employment, meaningful civil rights legislation. Fearing the march would have a negative effect on the probability for the civil rights bill in Congress, President Kennedy had declined the invitation to speak.
The speaking was dominated by Martin Luther King Jr., with his 'I Have A Dream' speech, which he delivered to an audience of at least 250,000. That speech established his reputation as one of the greatest orators in American history. Kennedy, not surprisingly, was quite impressed, and after a triumphant march/protest with no arrests (past marchs/protests had been answered violently by white police), King and other civil rights leaders were invited to the white house for photos with JFK.
John F. Kennedy has made a huge difference commencing the Space Race, aiding with the African American Civil Rights Movement, and definitely so has Martin Luther King Jr. The Sixties was a decade of change, of accomplishments, of hope and success.
"Almost always, the creative dedicated minority has made the world better."-Martin Luther King Jr.
Elements of discrimination before movement
Racial segregation: By law, public facilities and government services like education were divided into separate domains, 'white' and 'black'. Those for coloured were neglected fund-wise and were of inferior quality.
Disfranchisement: As white Democrats regained power, laws were passed that made voter registration more inaccessible to blacks. Hence the number of African American voters dropped dramatically, they became unable to elect representatives.
Expolitation: Increased economic abuse of blacks, denial of economic pooprunities, and widespread employment discrimination.
Violance: Individual, police, organizational and mass racial violence against blacks.
"One step for man, one giant leap for mankind."
There aren't a lot, in fact I don't think there's any reference at all to the Civil Rights movement, the Space Race or JFK in the novel.
I'm assuming the reason being, is that the whole story is based, obviously on Greasers and Socs, their whole interrelation and events between them, and it also mentions some popular culture and music stars. So it doesn't focus on any world events outside of this story. The whole reason S.E. Hinton wrote it was to aim at the adolescent life in that time, not the connections to the whole world at the time.
Although neither were mentioned in the book, they were unquestionably still important.