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Unit 1.4 Essential Questions
Transcript of Unit 1.4 Essential Questions
How does a vaccine activate the body's immune system?
How has vaccination impacted disease trends in our country?
Vaccination has caused several diseases that were once prominent causes of death in the United States to have reduced numbers of new cases or, in some instances, to be completely eradicated. For example, in 1900 Pneumonia and Influenza accounted for 10% of deaths in America but in 1997 that number was reduced to 3.7%. Additionally, diseases like Polio, measles, and diphtheria have been eradicated from the U.S. due to vaccination. Another way in which Herd Immunity as a result of vaccination of almost all of the population has helped to prevent the spread of disease. Because of mass vaccination, those who are not vaccinated are less likely to come into contact with the live virus of a disease and therefore less likely to be able to spread it. With more people immune to diseases there are less incidences of the disease and so even those who are not vaccinated will still not likely be infected.
What is Vaccination?
What is recombinant DNA technology?
Recombinant DNA technology is when scientists take the DNA of one organism and insert it into the DNA strand of another organism. Scientists can isolate a specific gene of a nucleotide sequence and manipulate it by adding a gene sequence of another organism to it before reinserting it into the host organism through the process of recombinant DNA technology.
What are the molecular tools used to assemble recombinant DNA?
There are two main molecular tools used to assemble recombinant DNA. These are the "molecular scissors" and the "molecular glue." The "molecular scissors" is the enzyme called restriction endonucleases. This enzyme cuts the DNA at a specific sequence and leaves "sticky ends" that can then be reattached to another strand of DNA by the enzyme ligase. Ligase is the "molecular glue" because it reconnects the sticky ends of two genes to finalize the recombinant DNA strand.
What methods are used to produce vaccines in a laboratory?
There are 5 types of vaccines and they are distinguished by the way in which they are made.First is the similar-pathogen vaccine. This is a live vaccine because it takes live viruses similar to the ones of the disease so that an immune response is activated and the necessary antibodies are produced but not one so similar that they cause the full disease when injected into the body. One example of this is the Small Pox Vaccine. Scientists use live viruses from the cow pox disease to create the vaccine. Second is the Attenuated Vaccine. This also uses a similar virus to the one needed so the correct immune response is activated without the full disease produced. Scientists grow the virus in conditions that are similar but not quite the same as that of the human body so the strain mutates and grow extremely slowly in the human body allowing enough time for the correct antibodies to be produced. One example of this is the measles vaccine. The third method is the killed vaccine. In this process, the pathogen's replicating abilities are disabled while the antigens on its surface are still present. The virus is disabled through the use of heat, radiation, or formaldehyde. These vaccines do not activate the full response however and often require boosters. Fourth is the toxoid vaccine in which the vaccine conditions the immune system to attack not the virus but rather the toxins that the virus would usually produce in the body. They do this by isolating the toxin from the virus in a growth medium and neutralizing the toxin before injecting it into the body. Like the killed vaccine, this does not activate a strong immune response and often an "adjuvant" will be added to it. One example of this is for the tetanus vaccine and the adjuvant vaccines that it is paired with are the pertussis and diphtheria vaccine. Next is the subunit vaccine in which only a small portion of the pathogen is used to create the vaccine, sometimes only a single strand of DNA. One example of this is the Hepatitis B vaccine. The last method is the Naked DNA vaccine. This utilizes altered vectors to cause the immune system to produce specific antibodies
How can engineered plasmids be inserted into bacterial cells?
There are three main methods of inserting plasmids into bacterial cells. First is conjugation. This occurs when two bacteria cells come into close contact with one another. From there a pilus is formed between them and a copy of the DNA in the plasmid is transferred through the pilus. Next is transformation were genes are transferred from one bacterium to another as "naked DNA." This occurs when bacteria cells die or their cell walls break apart and their bacteria is ingested by another bacteria in close proximity and incorporated into its own DNA. Last is transduction. In this method bacterial DNA is transferred from one bacterium to another inside a virus that infects the bacteria cells. These viruses called bacteriophages take over the bacteria's genetic process when it infects it in order to produce more phages. The bacterial DNA incorporates the new phage DNA and when it dies, the new phage can go on to infect another bacteria and transfer the DNA once more.
How can recombinant DNA and bacterial cells be used to produce vaccines?
Scientists use recombinant DNA and bacterial cells to produce vaccines by utilizing the plasmids in the bacteria to create DNA sequences that replicate that of the virus. Once they do this they can isolate the growth colonies and purify the replicated DNA strands. They can then use those for one of the methods of vaccine production.
Disease Prevention Through Vaccination
Vaccine Development Continued
Unit 1.4 Essential Questions
Unit 1.4 Essential Questions
In this unit we learned about vaccines and how they are made. Vaccines are the first line of defense against pathogens that could potentially cause disease. Vaccines build immunities to different antigens so that when they attack your body you likely will not experience the full disease. Vaccines have had a significant impact on modern medicine and have changed disease trends throughout the world. There are several different types of vaccines and methods of making them. There are medical professionals that study these and the science behind disease outbreaks.
What is Epidemiology?
How can epidemiologists assist with the detection, prevention, and treatment of both chronic and infectious disease?
Life of an Epidemiologist
A Brief History of Vaccines
Disease Trends in the U.S.
Visit the following link and complete the Making Vaccines Activity to learn more!
Recombinant DNA technology
Watch Restriction enzyme EcoR1
Recombinant DNA and Bacteria cells
Epidemiology is the branch of medicine that deals with and studies disease and other detrimental health related disorders. These scientists study the incidence, distribution, and possible control of those as well. They conduct many studies and surveillances of the patterns and characteristics of diseases. From there they can hypothesize about the overall effect on the population and the environment. The field of epidemiology often includes other health care specialists such as microbiologists and immunologists as well as professionals in statistics, demography, and geography.
Epidemiologists use a variety of digital surveillance tools to track the number of outbreaks, rate of infection, and overall progress of a disease. From there they can evaluate anti-drug resistance and help to predict outbreaks in order to formulate plans to stop them.
A vaccine activates the body's immune system by injecting weakened or killed pathogens into the body with their antigens still present. In the immune response, a macrophage with engulf the pathogen and display its antigens on its exterior. This will trigger the Helper T-Cells which will in turn signal the B-Cells and Cytotoxic T-Cells. The B-Cells form plasma cells that produce the antibodies specific to the antigen that will then bind to the antigen in the body. This signals to the Cytotoxic T-Cell to destroy the infected body cells.