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Yr 8

Mehwish Siddiqui

on 10 June 2013

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Transcript of History

Yr 8
Pre 1500
Tudor (1485 -1603)
Dissolution of the Monastries (1536-1540)
Eilzabethan England (1558-1603)
Stuart (1603- 1714)
Civil War (1642-1649)
Plague (1665)
British Colonies (1660s)
Georgian (1714-1837)
Massive British Empire (18th C)
Thomas Clarkson (1785)
The Society for Effecting the Abolition of the Slave Trade was formed (1787)
French Revolution (1789)
Why were the British so worried about their empire in the 1780s?

Complete the activity sheet
10-15 min
Learning Objectives
By the end of the lesson you will:
a) Identify when the British Empire started growing
b) Learn who Thomas Clarkson was and why he was angry
You might...
c) Discover how the slave trade worked
Thomas Clarkson: Fact file
Born in Cambridgeshire (1760)
Won a place at Cambridge University
He wanted to join the Church but in 1785 he wrote an essay which made him so angry.
What was being carried round the 'Triangle'?
Using the information sheet, note what kind of cargo was taken on each voyage.
Why was the transporting of slaves was often called the 'Middle Voyage'?
Match the clues from earlier to the
stage in the triangular trade
You will take part in the
Clarkson Challenge.

By the end of the challenge you will identify the struggles that Clarkson faced and be able to empathise with him.

All challenges are on the sheet provided and must be answered in your books.
What you know:
Who benefited from slavery - the most and the least

Different arguments to defend the slave trade

Reliability of sources
What to do now:
You now need to collect your evidence carefully.

Being a historian is not about the amount of evidence you collect but what you can infer from that
Complete Clarkson Challenge 3 in your books
Clarkson Challenge No. 3: Answers
Argument put forward to defend the slave trade:

The slave trade makes lots of money for Britain. It has to continue - Africa is undeveloped, no other type of trade is possible.
Counter Argument:

African kingdoms were vast and organised trade was common. Gold, salt, copper and agricultural produce were exported/traded.
Supporting Evidence:

The kingdom of Mali
Argument put forward:

Slaves are not captured cruelly. Most are PoW, they would have been killed anyway.
Counter argument:

Africans were seized and forced onto slave ships. They were forced to walk long distances with hands tied and connected to one another by chains.
Supporting evidence/witness:

Olaudah Equiano
John Clarkson
Tools used in
Argument put

Conditions on the slave ships are good.
Counter argument:

Slave ships were loaded with Africans. Ships could carry 454 Africans by law but more were squeezed in. An adult slave was given a space of 6 foot by 1 foot 4 inches.
Supporting evidence/witness:

Plan of a loaded ship found in Plymouth
The Brookes (a slave ship from Liverpool)
Argument put

Enslaved Africans are well treated in the plantations.
Counter argument:

The slaves are often underfed. They had very small rations to only last them half a week. Life expectancy was 26yrs due to poor diet, living conditions and diseases.
They used to work 12hrs a day, 6 days a week.
They were lashed for 'poor work'. Runaway slaves were lashed 100 times, branded on the face or have an ear nailed to a post.
Supporting evidence/witness:

Notes made from conversation with James Ramsay (navy doctor and minister)
You now have studied about the challenges Clarkson faced. It was no easy task to convince everyone that slavery was in fact a bad thing.
In 1807 the slave trade was abolished throughout the British Empire. In 1833 slavery was abolished in all British colonies.
The success of this campaign has been attributed to one man -
Thomas Clarkson you say?
Nah! It was
William Wilberforce
For over 150 years Wilberforce has been presented as the hero of the campaign to end slavery.

Wilberforce is usually at the centre of TV documentaries etc.
Imagine you are a film director.
Using the information you have learned over the last half term and information from the handouts you are going to create a documentary which will be titled 'Abolition - The True Story'.
It will be 60 minutes long; the target audience will be 12-13 year olds.
Things you may wish to consider:

Was Wilberforce the only campaigner?
Should other campaigners be mentioned?
Did the slave resistance play a role?
We know about 2 key dates - are there any others?
Was 1807 really the turning point?
Does slavery still exist today? (www.antislavery.org)
The Slave Trade was abolished (1807)
Slavery abolished (1833)
The Industrial Revolution
Learning Objectives
By the end of this lesson you will:

- Have started your 'Before & After' chart showing the changes in British History
- Identify what factors were involved in the Industrial Revolution
- Begin researching key industries which flourished during the Industrial Revolution
Can you remember?
There were 11 million
people in Britain
20% of British people
lived in towns
Most people were
Most goods were made
by hand at home
There were 40 million people in Britain
75% of British people lived in towns
Most people worked in factories or offices
Most goods were made by machine in factories
You have each been given a factor and some string.
You need to find another factor that is linked to yours. When you have found a factor then make sure you can explain why you two are linked.
For your help:

The factors are explained on the posters dotted around the room.
Research your industry and find two facts about it.
You can find out about any invention in that industry, where the industry was located etc. The more interesting the fact the better!
Rules for the year (As well as the 5 Golden Rules)
At the start of each lesson, collect your exercise book and then take your seat.
Without fuss, draw a margin with a ruler in pencil on the left hand side of the page and write the short date in the margin.
If there is already work written on the page then rule it off and start again.
This should ensure your work is together and neater.
By the end of the lesson you will:
Be able to describe which factors influenced Industrial Revolution and link them to others

Started researching key areas that expanded during the Industrial Revolution, using laptops
We'll put all the facts together to
create a fact-board
Manchester in 1850 was the heart of the Industrial Revolution.
Other goods
Wages were higher in factories than farms
no job = no wage = starve
You work for the London Daily News.
The year is 1852. You have collected information from Manchester for an article that you are going to write.
You have three questions that need answering:
1) Are the homes of the Industrial workers good to live in?
2) Are the workers fairly treated?
3) Is life getting better for the people of Manchester?
Key skills: In the activity you will learn to CROSS REFERENCE sources and make inferences in order to develop a full picture of the past. When you cross reference you check sources against each other to find ways in which they either agree or disagree.
Key skills: In the activity you will also learn to SELECT SOURCES/EVIDENCE which are useful for an investigation which creates a BALANCED view of the past. If you don't then your view becomes biased and not creditworthy.
Learning Objectives
Over the next 2-3 lessons you will:

Discover what life was really like in Manchester during the Industrial Revolution through cross referencing

Explain to others the reality of Manchester life during the Industrial Revolution by selecting sources/evidence and writing an article for a newspaper.
What a difference a train makes!
By the end of the lesson you will:

Identify differences between various types of evidence
Describe the effects of railways
Focus closely on using photographs as evidence
Fanny Kemble (Actress)
It is a magical machine with its flying white breath and rhythmical, unvarying pace. I stood up and with my bonnet off drank the air before me. When I closed my eyes this sensation of flying was quite delightful.
Thomas Creevey (MP)
It is really flying and it is impossible to divest yourself of the notion of instant death to all. I am extremely glad indeed to have seen this miracle and to have travelled in it but I am quite satisfied with my first railway journey (being) my last.
1. How did these reactions to railways differ?
2. Look at the sources on Pg 32-33. What can you INFER from these sources about how railways have changed people's lives?
3. You have now used written and photographic sources. Are there any differences between what you can learn from both types of evidence?
Inside a Victorian photograph album
Do you like taking photographs?
So did the people of 1839 when photography was invented. But they were difficult to use and the exposure time was several minutes!
Why have I shown you these images?
Because they are portraits and only the rich and famous had portraits painted.
In pairs, choose three photographs from pages 34-39 and note down for each one:

a) What it shows
b) Any evidence of the way life was changing after 1850
c) Any evidence of the things that were not changing or were getting worse.
Make a note of the photos you pick.
History can be pretty grim... people forced to serve their lord, africans sold as slaves, British people forced to work in such dangerous conditions just to survive....
We're now going to look at a period of time when the ordinary person believed they had rights... they had a voice... they wanted DEMOCRACY!
What's going on?
They are signing a document declaring themselves independent from British rule
When is this?
4th July, 1776
Where is this?
Philadelphia, USA
Why were they signing the document?
Because the British government was trying to tax them
Who were they?
Representatives from the 13 British colonies on the east coast of N. America
All men are created equal
They are given certain Rights by their Creator... Among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.
To secure these
rights, Governments are set up... gaining their power form the agreement of the governed
Whenever any form of Government becomes destructive to these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or abolish it, and to set up a new Government
Why was this a turning point?
Before this day they were British colonists, ruled from London
After this day they lived in a new country, USA. They had broken free from their European masters
The Declaration was more than freedom from Europe, it was about the ideas of HUMAN RIGHTS and EQUALITY.
Other countries followed this idea. But not everyone agreed about the method to do this. Some believed in peaceful campaigning, others believed in armed uprising.
Your task - Using skills that you have learnt in English (for example, writing to persuade and writing to argue) you will write a speech. You are going to look at events in France and in Britain and are going to view them though the eyes of two British people. They both want the same things but in different ways. You'll pick one and use evidence relative to their argument.
Cut out and stick the picture of the very handsome man in your books. In one colour (or pencil) write down who you think he is.
His name was Louis XVI. He became king in 1774 when he was 20 years old.
He ruled France from his palace in Versailles.
He put people in prison without trial
He chose his ministers and sacked them if he didn't like them.
There was no Parliament to share ruling in France
A financial crisis
Louis' biggest problem was money.
Annual Income= 475 million livre
Annual Expenditure = 587 million livre
By how much was he overspending - don't shout out the answer!
He also had a debt of 1646 million livre. By the end of the year how much was he in debt by?
In the 1780s France was the most powerful country in Europe. The population was 25 million!
Europe envied French luxury - goods, fashion and food.
The country was in a financial crisis.
1st - Church
2nd - Nobility
3rd - Bourgeois
3rd- Sans Culottes
3rd - Peasants
Structure of France
The Revolution begins!!
Starter: Get together in your groups and finish preparing for your presentation- 2 mins
Class activity: Whilst the other groups are presenting you need to fill out your table - this means you have to listen closely to what they are saying- be prepared to share!
Stage 1 - The bourgeois revolution
Stage 2 - The revolution of sans-culottes
Stage 3 - The peasants' revolution
Main task:
You will be randomly split into 6 groups.
You will need to draw around one member and 'split' them into three - AIMS, METHODS and OUTCOMES.
Using your textbooks you need to extract information to help fill in your person so that by the end of the lesson you know the Revolution you have covered.
You will present it next lesson!
So far you've identified the structure of France,
By the end of the week all students should be able to outline the three stages of revolution.
They should also complete the 'Declaration of the Rights of Man' activity.
In 1793 the king was executed. He failed to keep his promise of change and was removed from his throne in 1792. A few months later in Jan 1793 he went to the guillotine. Soon after the Queen's head came off as well!
Who's name was mentioned in the song?
The Terror: 1792-94
This part was the bloodiest part of the Revolution. Anyone who opposed the Revolution or supported the King was arrested.
If you were rich, or in the 1st/2nd Estate you were arrested.
The Sans-cullottes seemed obssessed with executions, like some of you are with 1D or JB!
Look back at your starter sheet and think about what Henri, Edith and Gaston had wanted back in 1789.
Who is most pleased with this situation and who is very annoyed?
Don't forget, we are working through these events to help us write a speech for James or Sarah.
Using your books, especially pages 188-189, what evidence is here that you could use in your speech? If you have forgotten about what your speech will include then look back in the chapter.
What did the Revolution do for me?
BOURGEOIS - Napoleon's wars were very bad for trading but the Bourgeois gained a lot from the Revolution. They could buy Church and Noble lands cheaply. Children were educated and could get careers which were only for the Nobles before.
SANS-CULOTTES - It started off good for the S-C but later wage and price control was stopped and they couldn't make ends meet. Before the Revolution the Church looked after the poor, not now.
PEASANTS - They were forced to war, had no control over grain prices, paid taxes for the war and rent went up. BUT normal taxes weren't as bad, they could buy land and also vote.
Could it happen here?
After the French Revolution many Britons were wondering if it could happen here?
Some were in hope, others in fear-
Could the ordinary people take over the government and make Britain fairer?
Maybe violence and war would follow though?
Your task: remainder of lesson/homework

You need to produce a diagram(s) outlining why ordinary people wanted change using the information on Pages 196-197. Once you have done this you will be in a position to answer 'What would people want changed?'
How you use your artistic skills is upto you! Be creative.
Your written answer must be logical and backed with evidence.
What was wrong with British Democracy in 1815?
By the end of the lesson you will:

Be able to identify key issues facing democracy in 1815 using sources as help

Highlight what should be changed by creating a chart
Recap from last lesson:
What were some of the problems that ordinary people faced?

Check your pictures if you've forgotten!
If people were facing these problems today then how do they go about trying to resolve it?
This wasn't as easy to do though in 1815. This was because there was a problem with British Democracy.
Working with the person next to you and using the sources on the handout, work through the activity.
Peterloo 1819: What did they want and did they get it?
By the end of the lesson you will be able to outline what happened at St. Peter's Fields and what the consequences were.
The atmosphere was tense after 1815
There were angry, hostile groups on both sides
There had already been large protest meetings in Leeds, Birmingham and London.
The speakers called for REFORM of parliament, REDUCTION of taxes and votes for ALL adults.
Who was brave enough to lead the way?
You have been given a cartoon strip with some captions.
You need to sort out the captions with the correct cartoon.
Do not stick them down or lose any parts to it.
Once you have completed the comic strip answer the following questions in your books:
Aims: What did the protesters want?
Actions: Did they use peaceful or violent methods to achieve their aims?
Consequences: What happened? Did they get what they wanted?
Who was the most to blame for the deaths at Peterloo - the protesters or the magistrates?
Give reasons for your answer.
Starter task:

Complete the table, you will need to recall what you learnt from last lesson.

And yes, there is an empty row - do not fill it in.
What's happening here?
This is a picture of the Bristol reform riots of October 1831. The city jail and houses were burned down. Soldiers were called in to restore order. Are the protesters sucessful?
You are going to be assigned a role. You will read your section and the create a mini role-play from what you understand. You will have 10 mins to do this. You are not required to make a detailed play, just enough detail to make your point.

You will then join your part with another 2 parts to make one whole.

The groups are REFORM, NOTTINGHAM and BRISTOL. One complete presentation will cover 3 mini role-plays.
London next?
Rumour spread that 200,000 protesters were to march from Birmingham to London to protest for more people having the right to vote.
What happened?
The government ordered more soldiers to deal with the problem but the soldiers refused to obey!
The government took this very seriously and in June 1832 the voting system was changed! YAY!
The Reform Act - June 1832
Gave the right to vote to men who owned, leased or rented property over a certain value
Increased the number of men who could vote to 8% of the population Large cities like Leeds, Manchester and Bradford got MPs for the first time
Votes still had to own property or land
Working men or women couldn't vote
Voting was still public so bribery and fear were still present during elections
The countryside and South still had more MPs than the North
1. Add a new row to your chart called 'Reform Riots of 1831'
2. Complete the columns 2-4.
3. In pairs, quietly discuss and be prepared to share:
Why do you think so many people were disappointed by the 1832 reform?
Do you think the threat of more violence in 1831had been sucessful in forcing the government to make changes or had it prevented greater changes
4. Complete the final column.
Starter task:

Recap from the last lesson - Complete the table (aims, actions, outcomes and lessons from history), only complete Peterloo and Reform Riots.
5-10 mins
Imagine you were a man who had worked hard with the middle class to get the vote and you found out that although the voting system had changed it still didn't allow you to vote. How would you feel?
How did the Chartists try to win the vote?
By the end of the lesson you will be able to describe what Chartism is and be able to outline the six points of the People's Charter in your own words.
Some of you will be able to outline how each point was meant to make the voting system fairer.
So what was Chartism?
Chartism was a movement for political reform in the late 1830s. The working class wanted the right to vote and so in 1836 a group of London working men drew up a Charter. This charter had SIX political demands.
In your books...
1. In your words, describe what Chartism was.
2. Read through the People's Charter and summarise each demand in your own words. You may need a dictionary for help.
Extension Task:
Part B - How was each of the six points in the Charter meant to make the voting system fairer?
Peaceful protest or violent action?
There were 2 main groups of protesters. They both wanted the six points of the charter. They each had different ideas about the way to get them!
William Lovett lead the way. He said:
The Chartists were worthy of the vote; held meetings, wrote letters, set up schools, didn't drink
Feargus O'Connor lead this group.
He held large meetings, made passionate speeches, urged Chartists to fight for their right, his language was also violent
History and RE are now coming together.
The topic that we are going to be looking at is...
Do we know anything about the Holocaust?
The most common thoughts about the Holocaust are: Jews were persecuted and it happened around WW2
We are going to be looking at the history of Jewish persecution, the consequences and remembrance of the Holocaust amongst other things.
You have been given a booklet. It is NOT a race to complete the booklet. You will be given adequate time to do so.

We are looking at quality, so ensure that all answers in the booklet are as detailed as possible.

You know your target grades and have been given feedback on how to achieve them. Be resiliant- when the work is difficult don't give up... keep trying.
Next task:
You can move onto the next task when you have completed the 'Masada' question. Ensure your answer is detailed.
For the next task you need to interpret information given into a timeline that you can understand. As this is personalised you can add anything that willl help in your understanding. The detail must be present!
So, what have we learnt from the last two History lessons?

Fill in the first part of the sheet.
We have used the word 'persecution' quite a lot this last week... but what does it mean?
"Subject (someone) to hostility and ill-treatment"
Thinking about this definition and what we have learnt about the Jewish persecution so far answer the next page in the booklet
You are now going to do some research.

You are going to investigate the lives of two Jewish people who lived in Europe during the 1930s.

Once you have read and understood your chosen two people you need to think about the similarities and differences between the two people and outline what happened to them during the holocaust.
Full transcript