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Visionary System

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Jacklyn Sumarsono

on 24 January 2016

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Transcript of Visionary System

Iris & Pupil
Eye color is produced by the amount of pigment contained in the iris. The iris controls the size of the pupil which
the amount of light that is allowed to enter the eye.
As the size of the pupils change with different lighting conditions, the pigment within the iris can
spread apart
causing variations in eye
Pupil sizes can also change with emotions causing different eye colors when your mood changes.

Parts of the Eye
We got Eyes for the Visionary System

-Astigmatism is a
refractive error
. The eye doesn't distribute light
onto the retina. The length of the eyeball changes the shape of the cornea
- A normal eye has a round curvature of the cornea and lens like a basketball.
-An eye with astigmatism's optical shape has a
of the lens that has abnormal patterns.
-Astigmatism can be found after a
dilated eye exam

Optical Illusions: When your brain can't believe your eyes!

The cornea is the clear, protective outer layer of the eye. It is a barrier against
and other
that can harm the eye's fragile components. The cornea is also able of filtering out some amounts of the sun's ultraviolet light.

As light enters the eye, it is bent by the outside shape of the cornea. The curve of this outer layer helps predict how well your eye can focus on objects close-up and far away.

If the cornea of your eye becomes damaged, the resulting scars can interfere with vision by
light as it enters the eye.
In the beginning, there is light present that bounces off objects all around and enters the eye.
Secondly, the light passes through the pupil and lens to the retina at the back of the eye.
In the retina, the light
towards the back of the eye to make an
backwards picture
The retina consists of light-sensitive cells (called rods and cons) that change the picture into code-like scripts that your brain understands.
The optic nerve comprehends and delivers these messages to your brain.
Finally, your brain reads the messages and reflects what you're looking at.
Profile Illusions
How do Optical Illusions relate to the vision system?
The vision depends on the
to see and on the
to make sense of what we see.
The optic nerve at the back of the eye connects to the central nervous system in the brain.
The brain receives electrical impulses (stimuli) from our eyes which are interpreted as
, however the brain adds two extra factors to the received image:
(in short, perception).
Sometimes the brain is deceived by information received from the eyes.
Optic Nerve
The optic nerve relays
electrical impulses
from the retina to the brain. It is more like brain tissue than it is
nerve tissue
. When examining the back of the eye, a part of the optic nerve called the optic disc can be noted.
There are about 1.1 million nerve cells in each optic nerve.
Causes of Myopia
-It can be
genetically inherited
, and it mainly appears in early childhood

-It is also diagnosed the most in infants, but can be common in adults as well.

-During puberty and during the teenage years it can increasingly worsen.

-Some side effects are
eye straining
, and
in order to see better.
How we see the eye and The Human Visual System
Vision is a complex sense. The eyes update our complex visual system allowing for
to occur every
However important our eyes may be, our brain is critical to help us see. Without it, vision would not be possible for us. Really, it's the brain that drives our visual system!
The retina is a light-sensitive layer at the back of the eye that covers about 65 percent of its interior surface.
cells called rods and cones in the retina convert
light energy
into signals that are carried to the brain by the
optic nerve
. In the middle of the retina is a small dimple called the fovea centralis. It is the center of the eye's sharpest vision and the location of most color perception.
Treatments for Eye Sight
Nearsighted (Myopia)
How do the eyes focus?
You focus light with your
Your curved cornea bends light into your eye.
Your lens changes shape to bring objects into focus.
How do you see?
The Vision and Nervous System linked
The visual system is the part of the central nervous system which gives organisms the ability to process visual detail, as well as enabling the formation of several non-image photo response functions.
Ex. Inflammation in the artery of the brain can cause blurred vision.
Work Cited
Optic nerve. (2005, January 1). Optic Nerve
Function, Anatomy & Definition. Retrieved May 17, 2014, from
Hard lenses
are made out of silicone polymers which control the flow of oxygen to your eyes. This material is tough which enhances the longevity of hard lenses. It also means that they are likely to keep their shape.

Soft contact lenses
are made of a plastic polymer that can combine with water. The water in soft lenses enables oxygen to pass through the lens to the eye. This increases comfort for the wearer.

There are two kind of soft lenses; daily disposable soft contact lenses and extended wear contact lenses.

Both hard and soft contact lenses sit on the eye's tear layer and are designed to correct vision problems.


The goal of any refractive surgical procedure is to reduce your dependence on corrective lenses. However, surgery cannot
you will have
20/20 vision
as a result.
There are possible risks with any surgical procedure. Serious complications with
are extremely rare.
PRK (Photo Refractive Keratectomy)
corrects vision by reshaping the cornea.
uses a laser to change the curvature of the cornea. It removes tissue within the cornea to treat low to high levels of nearsightedness, farsightedness and astigmatism.
Changes way light ray bends to the eye so as to benefit eye sight.
Bifocals are other forms of glasses more rare to the youth.
Prescription sunglasses can also be an option as they help vision.
When and Why do our eyes worsen?
How our eyes age as we get older:(
Usually vision doesn't weaken until the age of
40-65 & beyond
Age-related changes take place in all
ocular tissues
of the human eye, with a number of these involving changes in
optical parameters
The lens is also subject to the aging process, and the resulting conditions--
--will eventually affect just about everyone.
think our
need a boost hmm?
Happy & Healthy Eyeballs
EJ Fig & Jackie Sumo
of close range objects are clear, as depth of field increases, there is loss of
The main cause of
myopia is that the eyeball is either too long or the
has too much curvature.
When light enters the eye, it ends up focusing in front of the retina instead of directly on it, causing blurred vision.
Basic Physiology of Vision. (n.d.). Basic Physiology
Vision. Retrieved May 17, 2014, from

Anatomy and Physiology of the Eye | Vision System
Sense of Sight. (n.d.). Anatomy and Physiology of the Eye | Vision System | Sense of Sight. Retrieved May 17, 2014, from
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