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Intro to Matter

Oct 1, 2012
by

Sister M. Lissetta Gettinger

on 3 October 2013

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Transcript of Intro to Matter

is ALL around us
Chemistry
What is Chemistry?
5 States of Matter
What is matter made up of?!
Periodic Table
Chemistry is the study of the properties of matter and how matter changes.
Matter is anything that has mass and takes up space.
Matter can undergo a physical or chemical change.
For Example:
A brick has mass and takes up space
A desk has mass and takes up space
A pencil has mass and takes up space
Air has mass and takes up space
(VOLUME)
Example:
Air and plastic are both matter
BUT made up of entirely different materials.
Matter can have different properties or characteristics.
Chemistry and Physics go Hand in Hand
They are 2 sides to one coin
Physical Sciences:
Chemistry focuses on the properties of substances and interactions between matter.
Physics focuses on the nuclear aspect of an atom.
Why are we studying chemistry?!
It gives us Understanding of the world around us
It is not some secret code that only scientists knows about
- IT IS AN EXPLANATION OF EVERYDAY THINGS
We study chemistry to understand how things work :: it helps us make better choices
Examples: Laundry detergent; shampoo; hair styling products; cooking; medicine
Sooo... You are saying that Chemistry will always be apart of my life?!
You bet!!!
A brief example of the list of jobs that use chemistry are.....
Firefighters - fireworks
Doctors, nurses, dentists, physical therapists, veterinarians, chemists, physicists, biologists, engineers
Science teachers, truck drivers, artists, chefs, hairdressers....
THE LIST GOES ON ->
We need to do our best to get a good grasp on the basics of Chemistry
Soo.. How can I be a chemist?
Chemists do whatever they want.
They conduct research, ask questions, test hypotheses, create models or reactions, predict reactions, field work, projects, write, teach, and so on.....
Wow! I think I do those things already.......
Chemistry is ALL around us! We cannot escape it.
History of Chemistry and the Nobel Prize
Be sure to take notes on WHO Alfred Nobel was in your notes!
Good Morning/ Afternoon! Oct. 1, 2012
Get Going:
Element of the Week -
Hydrogen
1. Grab a piece of paper from the Element Box on the demonstration table.
2. On the outside - Put the letter that the element starts with "H"
3. Be creative, colorful -
DONT DO ANYTHING TO ANY OTHER SIDE OF THE PAPER!
1.
2.
1. Bose-Einstein
2. Solid
3. Liquid
4. Gas
5. Plasma
Exists at extremely cold temperatures (around absolute zero [zero Kelvin, -273.15 C, or -460 F)
Particles are super UNexcited
Particles lock or "clump" together so firmly that they move as a single unit
Definite shape and volume
Bose-Einstein predicted in the 1920s but was proven in 1995 by Cornell and Weiman using Rubidium (Rb)
Particles are tightlyl compact
Particles vibrate without the ability to move freely
Definite shape and volume
Draw this picture in your notes!
Particles are tightly compact, but able to move around close to each other
No definite shape, but definite volume
Draw this picture in your notes!
Particles can easily spread out or move close together
Particle move freely and with a lot of energy
No definite shape or volume
Draw this picture in your notes!
For example: Think about playing the game dodgeball
For example: Think about walking around the fair
For example: Think about going to a football game when its cold out; you huddle with your friends and shiver to keep warm.
Exist at extremely HIGH temperatures (several million degrees Celsius
Particles are broken apart
Particles move freely and with extremely high energy
This form is not too common on Earth, however it is the most common form of matter in the universe
No definite shape or volume
For example: Florescent and neon lights, lightning, aurora borealis
Draw this picture in your notes!
Sum it up!
Energy & the States of Matter
The physical states of matter result from the amount of energy that particles composing that matter have.
Basically, more energy means more movement for the particles and less energy means less movement.
http://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulation/states-of-matter-basics
http://www.colorado.edu/physics/2000/bec/temperature.html
What is absolute zero? What does temperature have to do with it?
Copy picture in your notes!
Conservation of Mass
The LAW OF CONSERVATION OF MASS states that in any chemical or physical change,
matter can NOT be created or destroyed!
[Mass is NOT lost - just rearranged!
Mass of a substance stays the same but the volume may change if it heats up
Thermal Expansion
Properties of Matter
Physical Properties
Chemical Properties
Physical Properties is a characteristic of a substance that can be observed without changing the substance into another substance.
color
hardness of material
texture
shine
flexibility
bending
crushing
breaking
chopping
Physical Change
What is a good example
Liquid water to ice
Ice to Liquid
Gas to liquid (condensation)
Liquid to gas (evaporation)
It is all water, just in different forms
Chemical properties is a characteristic that describes its ability to change into a different substance
fires
oxidation
tarnishing
combustion
rust
Chemical Changes
can have different properties than the original substances
Iron + Oxygen = Rust
In a chemical reaction you have an original substance & then a NEW substance
Reactants ----> Products
Original substance
New substance
ATOMS!! - The building blocks of matter
Smallest possible unit into which matter can be divided, while still maintaining its properties
Think of the solar system
Draw this in your notes!
Nucleus:


Electron Cloud:
the center core of an atom containing
Protons (+ charge) & Neutrons (no charge)
Electrons (- charge)
Atoms are sooo small that......
It would take a stack of about 50,000 aluminum atoms to equal the thickness of a sheet of aluminum foil from your kitchen
If you could enlarge a penny until it was as wide as the US each of its atoms would be only about 3cm in diameter - about the size of a ping pong ball
a human hair is about 1 million carbon atoms wide
a speck of dust might contain 3x10 (3 trillion) atoms
It would take you around 500 years to count the number of atoms in a grain of salt
32
http://www.miamisci.org/af/sln/phantom/papercutting.html
State of Matter
Shape
Volume
How do the particles move
Key Terms and definition
Bose-Einstein
Solid
Liquid
Gas
Plasma
Crystalline solids -
Amorphous solids -
Surface Tension -
Viscosity -
Solid
Liquid
Gas
Melting
Evaporation
Sublimination
Condensation
+ Heat
+ Heat
- Cold
- Cold
Key terms:
1. Crystalline Solids
2. Amorphous Solids
3. Viscosity
4. Melting Point
5. Freezing
6. Evaporation
7. Boiling Point
8. Condensation
9. Sublimination
Be sure to have this in your notes!
Draw the picture and define the words in green.
How do we measure gas?!
Volume
Temperature
Pressure
Because gas doesn't have a definite volume and is free to move anywhere; gas fills the container therefore taking the volume of its container.
Temperature is the measure of the average energy of random motion of the particles of a substance.
Remember: more energy = more movement and less energy = less movement
The pressure of the gas is the force of its outward push divided by the area of the walls of the container.

Pressure is measured in units of pascals (Pa) or kilopascals (kPa) [1kPa = 1000 Pa]
Pressure = Force
Area
Boyle's Law:









Charles's Law:
(temperature is constant)
P = V
and vice versa
Freezing
Good Morning/Afternoon Oct. 3, 2012

1. Element of the week - Hydrogen

2. Read the paragraph on Hydrogen in your book.
(pg. 634)

3. In the inside of the flip card; at the top right corner - draw a geographic picture of its location
volume is constant
T = P
(1600s - improve air pumps)
(late 1700's - hot air balloons)
(pressure is constant)
T = V
and vice versa
and vice versa
Temperature (K)
Volume (mL)
Directly proportional
Pressure (kPa)
Volume (mL)
Temperature (K)
Pressure (kPa)
Sublimation
The protons in an atom will equal the electrons in an atom thereby balancing out the charge.... (neutral)
Electron
Neutron
Proton
Proton & Neutrons have about the same mass equal to 1 amu (atomic mass unit)

An electron has a mass of 1/12 amu
Carbon 12
6 Protons
6 Neutrons
6 Electrons
Carbon 13
6 Protons
7 Neutrons
6 Electrons
Carbon 14
6 Protons
8 Neutrons
6 Electrons
Isotopes: Atoms with the same # of protons & a different # of neutrons.

[they still react the same chemically]
C
12
6
C
13
6
C
14
6
An atom can be known by the # of Protons in the nucleus of its atom!
For example: A football player is known by the # on their jersey
1. Atomic Number
2. Isotopes
Atomic Number
Every atom of an element has the same # of protons
Each element has a unique number.
What is carbon's atomic number?

What is nitrogen's atomic number?







.
http://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulation/build-an-atom
Good Morning/Afternoon Oct 4, 2012

Get Going:
1. Grab an article and start reading
2. You will list in your Element of the Week - Hydrogen
a. what does the name Hydrogen mean
b. 2 characteristics of Hydrogen
c. 2 ways we use hydrogen through technology
Good Morning/Afternoon Oct. 5, 2012

Get Going: Use your periodic table to answer the questions below.

What is the atomic #
- for Phosphorus
- for Radon
- Neptunium

How many neutrons does ...
- Zinc have?
- Oxygen have?
- Helium have?
Open Notes Quiz
1. PUll out your notes
2. There is no talking/sharing of information with other peers
3. You may write on this paper
4. On a separate sheet answer the following questions below in paragraph form and staple together to be turned in.
What does the Name Hydrogen mean?
List 1 technological use of Hydrogen
WHere can we find Hydrogen?
What is Hydrogen like?
Complete sentences!
READ PG. 611 2ND PARAGRAPH
Group:
18 vertical
columns
aka Families

They all have the same properties
Period: aka Rows
As you go from Left to Right - the properties of the elements change in a pattern
Metals
Physical Properties:
Chemical Properties:
(cc) image by rocketboom on Flickr
Conductivity
Ductility
Malleability
Shiny
-Ability to transfer heat/electricity to other objects
- Most metals are good conductors
- material that can be hammered or rolled out into flat sheets and other shapes
- that can be pulled out, or drawn, into a long wire
Reactivity - the ease or speed with which an element combines, or reacts, with other elements and compounds
Alkali Metals: Group 1

- lose an electron
- found only in compounds (with other elements)
- some are shiny and soft enough to cut with a knife

2 important ones to remember
1. sodium (Na) For example: dead sea
2. Potassium (K) For example: bananas
Alkaline Earth Metals: Group 2

- fairly hard
- great conductors of electricity
- gray-white
- reactive but not as much as group 1
- never found alone

2 important ones to remember
1. Magnesium (Mg) + Al = strong, light-weight parts
2. (Calcium) (Ca) = milk and other dairy products
Transition Metals: Groups 3-12
- most are hard and shiny
- good conductors of electricity
- less reactive than metals in groups 1 & 2


2 you may know
1. iron (Fe) + water = Rust
2. Gold (Au) = shiny jewelry
Metals in Mixed Groups: Some elements in 13-15

-not as reactive of those to the left of the table

A few you may know
1. Aluminum (Al) used in beverage cans
2. Lead (Pb) used in automobile batteries; used to be in paint.
Lathanoids: Top row of the bottom two

-soft, malleable, shiny metals
- high conductivity
- combined with other metals to make alloys
Nonmetals:
Physical Properties
Chemical Properties
- dull, brittle
- poor conductors
- highly reactive
- want to gain/share an electron
- can form compounds with other nonmetals
Carbon Family
- elements have 4 atoms that they want to share, gain, lose to be stable
- Carbon is the ONLY nonmetal
- Carbon is found in ALL living things
Good Morning/Afternoon Oct. 9, 2012

Get Going: Element of the Week - Nitrogen
1. Grab a piece of paper from Element Box
2. Put a Big "N" on the front side and write what you see in the periodic table on the upper half of the inner portion.
3. Make sure you have your periodic table out!!!
Element of Choice Project
Nitrogen Family - Group 15
- 2 nonmetals = nitrogen & phosphorus
- take a deep breath... Hello Nitrogen!
- want to gain/share 3 electrons
- phosphorus is more reactive than nitrogen
- nitrogen is a diatomic molecule
Diatomic Molecule: consists of two atoms
ie: N
2
Oxygen Family - Group 16
- 3 nonmetals: oxygen, sulfur and selenium
- oxygen = diatomic molecule O - air we breathe
triatomic molcule O -ozone layer

- Highly reactive; it can combine with any element!
- Most abundant element in the Earth's crust
Sulfur
- rotten egg smell
- tires, rubberbands
- one of the most important chemicals used in industry H SO
2
4
Sulfuric Acid
2
3
The Halogen Family - Group 17
- means "salt forming"
- All but Astatine are nonmetals
- gains/shares 1 electron when it reacts with other elements
- very reactive & uncombined elements are DANGEROUS
What are flourine and chlorine used in?
The NOBLE Gases - Group 18
- unreactive; they do not want to share their electrons or lose any
-All exist in Earth's atmosphere (only in small amounts)
What do you fill hot air balloons with?

Neon lights?
Hydrogen
- simpliest and smallest atoms
- 1 proton and 1 electron
- all properties differ so much from any other element
makes up 90% of atoms in the universe; 1% mass of earth's crust, oceans and atmosphere
-rarely found as a pure element.
- Mostly combined with.......... what other element.......????
Metalloids -

- have both characteristics of metals and nonmetals
-brittle, hard, and somewhat reactive
- most common = Silicon - silicon dioxide SiO makes glass
- MOST useful property is their varying ability to conduct electricity
[Semiconductors: substances that can conduct electricty under some conditions but not under other conditions. READ pg. 635
Color YELLOW on Periodic Table
Color Green on Periodic Table
Color Green on Periodic Table
Good Morning/Afternoon! Oct. 11, 2012

Get Going: Element of the Week - Nitrogen

1. Read Article and finish your element card in your notes!

Remember: 1. Name meaning
2. 2-3 Characteristics
3. 2 Technological Uses
Agenda Check Today!!!
Turn in Progress Report for 100% before Friday or its a ZERO..... eeek!

TUTORING AFTER SCHOOL..... IF YOU NEED HELP/COMPLETE ASSIGNMENTS FOR ME!!!!
Periodic Table Database....
Microsoft Access
Create New Database
Sheldon's Revenge
Good Morning/Afternoon Oct. 12, 2012

Get Going: Please make sure you have all the information on your element card.

1. What it looks like on the Periodic Table
2. Name Meaning
3. 2-3 Characteristics
4. 2 Technology uses

Use the article to help you get any information needed. We will take the quiz in 5 minutes.
Element Quiz
1. What was the name of your element this week?

2. How many protons does it have?

3. What is the name meaning?

4. List 2 Characteristics of your element.

5. How is this element used in this world?!
Name: ___________________
Today Finish Up

1. Element

2. Create an Element

3. Finish Database!!!!!!!
Chemical Change
A change in matter that produces one or more new substances, with properties different from the original substances
A single substance may be broken down
H2O2 ----> H2O + O2
Two or more substances combine to form different substances
Fe + O2 ---> Fe2O3
Conservation of Mass
The Law of
Reactants -------> Products
Original Substance
New Substance
SYNTHESIS REACTION
DECOMPOSITION REACTION
Antoine Lavoisier discovered the role oxygen played in combustion. He demonstrated the conservation of mass.
Matter cannot be created or destroyed
only rearranged!
Energy is the ability to do work or cause change.
Every chemical or physical change
includes a change in matter.
Thermal Energy
and Temperature

What's the difference?
Exothermic Change
Endothermic Change
Thermal energy always flows from
warmer matter to cooler matter.

Forms of Energy
Energy is neither created or destroyed,
only transformed!

Kinetic Energy
Matter in motion
Potential Energy
Energy from a position
a ball at it's highest point
a stretched bow and arrow
a rollar coaster at the top
ball at its highest point
potential energy --> kinetic energy --> work
Chemical Energy
Energy stored in chemical bonds
Combustion
Respiration
Electromagnetic Energy
travels as waves
Electrical Energy
moving electrons
Electrolysis
Electricity
Lightning
Full transcript