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Transcript of New Frontiers
US policy towards Cuba 1897-1940
Cuba became of increasing interest to
as the US grew as a commercial and naval power.
Cuba was the_
__ Spanish colony in the the region, and it was badly ruled. In 1868 the Cubans___
___ against their rulers demanding independence.
In the 1890s newly elected US president
Mckinley attempted to appease both US and Cuban opinion by trying to persuade the Spanish to reform their methods of government.
A private letter from the Spanish__
___in Washington, DC, was stolen and
The US battleship, the
, was sent to Cuba to protect US citizens who had been
caught up in the fighting there
.The Main exploded in a Cuban harbour resulting in over_
__ US sailors dying.
Naval Blockade: It is when a sea power (navy) blocks a port or harbor keeping other ships from coming or going. It also cuts a city from receiving or sending supplies and reinforcements.
The Expansion in North America 1840s-90s
The main ideas of underpinning manifest destiny are:
-US expansion to the Pacific was logical and inevitable
-Aggressive US nationalism was desirable
-The United States had the 'divine right' (a right given by God) to settle the whole North American continent, and to spread its Christian and republican values.
-Incorporation into the United States would bring liberty and freedom to other North American territories.
-If the USA did not acquire territories such as California, then some 'evil' colonial power might.
USA and Europe
Ellis island- the island near New York where the vast majority of immigrants from Europe arrived and were processed.
Arbitration- using an independent referee to settle a dispute, and agreeing to abide by the judgement of the referee
Self determination- the independence of the people of a given area, and their freedom to decide upon their own government.
Diktat- a statue, penalty, or settlement imposed in harsh terms upon a defeated party by the victor.
Isolationism- a national policy of avoiding political or economic commitments to other countries.
Woodrow Wilson (1856-1924)- served as president from 1912 to 1920. A democrat and a leader of the progressive movement. Introduced several major progressive reforms, namely his famous Fourteen Points.
Robert Lansing (1864-1928)- US Secretary of State from 1915 to 1920. Supported going to war with Germany but disapproved Wilson's Fourteen Points.
USA and ASIA
While other Countries flocked to China to get a foothold in the Market The USA chose to stay out of it for the most part. In 1844 the Treaty of Wanxia was signed that allowed Americans to trade in China under limitations. The Burlingame Treaty of 1868 gave the US 'The most favored nation' status. When the Chinese government fell to Warlords te US tried to bring peace but did not try to take over parts of the country like UK and France. After the last Emperor fell in 1912 Japan invaded and the US fought back. In the end the us did not make enormous profits but had a good reputation wit China.
Expansion of US Power
There was a large amount of emigration from Japan to the US which helped the Railroad business since it provided more jobs to Immigrants. The relations in Japan grew worse as the US chose to be protector of China making them an enemy of Japan. Their power was decreased at the Washington Naval Conference where they had to destroy some of their navy.
The Philippines and other Pacific Islands
Hawaii was the first acquisition of the US in the Pacific
They took Hawaii over in 1900 and it became a territory. During this time they also obtained Midway island which became a crucial Navy base.
The Philippines were gained during the Spanish-American War and was not given independence because the US thought the Natives were not capable of self-government. Later Woodrow Wilson helped the Philippines start the process towards freedom as he was against the Imperialism of the US. They became independent in 1945
Causes to the Spanish- American include:
-inspired by an aggressive and patriotic press campaign that inflamed public opinion.
-intended to protect US business interests
-the result of US fears of an independent Cuba that it could not control
-motivated by the USA’s desire for more territory and business
-a ‘Christian Mission’
-a deliberate distraction for Americans to divert interest from the economic depression
Part of an American tendency to confuse selfish US interests with progress and the wellbeing of other peoples
The three main areas of US expansion in the period after 1840:
-to the South and Southwest, then part of Mexico
-to the West and to the Pacific, areas mostly belonging to Native Americans
-to the North and Northwest, where Native Americans, Russians and the British (in Canada) controlled the land
The Causes of the US-Mexican War:
-the earlier annexation of Texas
-Mexicans' fear that the United States wanted to take over the whole of the Southwest and destroy their republic.
-the failure of US politicians to understand why the Mexicans did not like the idea of parting with 'spare' land that the USA could settle.
-the US view of Mexicans as cruel and incompetent rulers, and the resulting claim that the territory would be much better run by the USA.
The Treaty of Guadelupe Hidalgo 1848: this treaty brought an official end to the Mexican-American War (1846-1848) was signed on February 2, 1848, at Guadalupe Hidalgo, a city north of the capital where the Mexican government had fled with the advance of U.S. forces. The treaty also allowed The United States to purchase 1 million square miles for $15 million.
The 49th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 49 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane. It crosses Europe, Asia, the Pacific Ocean, North America, and the Atlantic Ocean.
US secretary that pushed for the acquistion of Alaska from Russia.
The notion that the United States was destined to expand into, settle and rule over the North American continent.
The Expansion of the US Power in the 19th and 20th Century Project Members:
The North and Northwest - Oregon and Alaska
Another ambition of The United States was to acquire 500,000 square miles of the Pacific Northwest Coast, centering on the present state of Oregon. This land was wanted by not only America but also Russia and Britain for its vast forest, good agricultural land and the superb port of Vancouver. The debate eventually came down to: should the US or Britain control Oregon?
-They had initially explored the area
- Their Hudson Bay Company had been trading there for years.
-They needed the important Pacific port of Vancouver.
USA or Britain?
-They had settled in that region first.
-They had explored it more thoroughly.
-It was next to US territory and it made geographical sense (49th parallel) for the USA to have it.
The purchase of Alaska in 1867
The last North American acquisition was Alaska in 1867. Due to the challenging role of looking after Alaska by Russia they sold it to the US for $7.2 million. Many of the Congress didn't want this purchase but was pushed through by William Seward for the following reasons:
-It would expand the Pacific coastline.
-There was good fishing there.
-It would keep the British from obtaining it.
-It would help America stay on good terms with Russia
-It would be a peaceful acquisition.
Due to the British being deeply involved in a crisis in Britain, they had to turn their focus away from Oregon and the Webster-Ashburton was signed. This continued the border along the 49th parallel and gave The United Sates an extensive Pacific coastline.