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Minerals

An introduction
by

Najeebullah Bangash

on 23 April 2010

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Transcript of Minerals

Minerals The human body also needs inorganic constituents, along with the energy producing constituents of the food.
Minerals are required only in a small fraction but they are essential for many vital processes.
Minerals are the only group of nutrients that are inorganic.
Bones are formed by a combination of calcium and phosphorus.
Eggshells are mainly composed of calcium.
Minerals aid in the construction of muscles, blood cells, internal organs and enzymes.
Animals with a deficiency in minerals never develop properly and are more susceptible to disease.
Simple structure substances, essential for all life forms
Blood calcium clotting of blood
Various ions activation of enzymes
Electrolytes acid base regulation
Calcium and phosphorus normal bone formation
Potassium and calcium normal action of muscles
Potassium and sodium osmotic control
Iron hemoglobin
Cobalt-- B12
Iodine thyroxine (Thyroid hormones)
Zinc ---Insulin
Minerals are divided up into two categories:
Macro minerals: Required in larger amounts in the diet.
Micro minerals or trace minerals: Required in very small amounts in the diet.
There are seven essential macro minerals:
Calcium
Chlorine
Magnesium
Phosphorus
Potassium
Sodium
Sulfur
There are nine essential micro minerals:
Cobalt
Copper
Fluorine
Iron
Iodine
Manganese
Molybdenum
Selenium
Zinc
Minerals make up 3-5% of the body.
Of that 3-5%, calcium makes up one-half of the body’s minerals.
Phosphorus makes up about one-fourth of the body’s minerals.
Calcium and phosphorus make up the largest portion (75%) of the total mineral content in the body.
Minerals are often fed free choice. Animals are given free access to the minerals and allowed to eat all they want.
This is done in a mineral box or trough or by using salt blocks.
Essential minerals are in the block and the animals take in the minerals as they lick the block for salt.
STAGES OF DEFICIENCY
Initial Depletion
Restricted to changes of metabolism of the element itself.

Compensated metabolic phase
Changes of element dependent functions compensated by independent systems unless stress is imposed

Metabolic deficiency
changes of major metabolic pathways, nucleic acids, proteins, carbohydrates, fat.

Clinical deficiency
Clinical signs, disease, death.

CALCIUM
Calcium is an important mineral, which is found more in our body than any other mineral.
It is mainly found in bones and teeth.
DIETARY SOURCES:
It is widely distributed in food substances such as: milk, yogurt, cheese, spinach, almonds, beans, broccoli, cabbage and egg yolks.
BODY DISTRIBUTION:
Total calcium of the body is 100 170g.
About 99 percent of it is found in bones.
0.5 percent in soft tissue and 0.1 percent in the ECF.
RDA REQUIREMENTS FOR CALCIUM

LEVELS
Normal plasma level of calcium is 2.12 2.62 mmol/l.
The calcium in plasma is of three types:
Ionized Calcium
Protein bound Calcium
Complexed Calcium
About 50% is ionized calcium, and it is the active form of calcium.
41% of total plasma calcium is protein bound, albumin is the major protein with which calcium binds.
9% is complexed calcium, it is complexed with organic acids.
FUNCTIONS
Calcification of bones and teeth
Blood coagulation
Regulating membrane permeability
As cofactor or enzyme activator
Muscle contraction
Role in neuromuscular transmission
As secondary or tertiary messenger
Excitability of heart is calcium dependant

ABSORPTION AND REGULATION
Calcium taken in the diet as calcium phosphate, carbonate and tartarate.
The absorption occurs mostly in the proximal part of the small intestine.
Absorption of calcium can occur by two mechanisms:
Simple Diffusion
Active transport
The active transport process involves energy and calcium pump
The process requires cholcalciferol (vitamin D3)
Magnesium is needed for calcium absorption, as it changes it in to its soluble state.
FACTORS AFFECTING ABSORPTION
pH: acidic pH favors absorption, while in alkaline medium the absorption of calcium is lowered.
High Protein Diet: this favors calcium absorption.
Fatty acids: in malabsorption syndrome of fat, the fatty acids react with calcium to form insoluble calcium soaps. Thus decreases calcium absorption.
Organic acids: increase the solubility of calcium salts and increase their absorption.
Oxalates: lower calcium absorption, as they form insoluble calcium oxalate salts.
Minerals: excess phosphates lower absorption and high content of magnesium in diet decreases absorption.
Age: less calcium is absorbed in old age.
Vitamin D: increases the absorption of calcium.
Hormonal:
Parathyroid Hormone: it increases calcium absorption. This hormone stimulates 1, hydroxylase enzyme in kidneys and increases the synthesis of cholcalciferol, which in turn enhances calcium absorption.
Calcitonin: it decreases calcium absorption by inhibiting 1, hydroxylase enzyme.
123 123 PTH acts on kidneys and bones.
On kidneys:
PTH Ca reabsorption

activates vitamin D Ca absorption
Ca mobilization from bones
Ca reabsorption
On bones:
PTH stimulates osteoclasts
bone erosion Ca release
Calcitonin acts on kidneys and bones.
On kidneys:
Calcitonin inhibits Ca reabsorption
excretion Ca
On bones:
Calcitonin stimulates osteoblasts Ca
inhibits osteoclastic activity Ca
DISORDERS OF CALCIUM METABOLISM
Two conditions are clinically important:
Hypercalcaemia
Hypocalcaemia

Hypercalcaemia: when the serum calcium level exceeds 11 mg/dl. The diagnosis often is made incidentally in asymptomatic patients.
Causes of Hypercalcaemia:
Hyperparathyroidism or parathyroid carcinoma
Vitamin D intoxication
Tumors of head and neck or renal tumors
Milk alkali syndrome
Hyperthyroidism
Acromegaly
Paget’s disease
Hypocalcaemia: when serum calcium levels are less than 8.5mg/dl.
Causes of Hypocalcaemia:
Absence of the Parathyroid Glands or of PTH
Impaired Secretion of PTH
Vitamin D Deficiency
Impaired 25-Hydroxylation
Hypoalbuminaemia
Pancreatitis
Rickets
Renal diseases and failure
FUNCTIONS:
In skeleton and teeth it add structural rigidity to the softer protein matrix
Major constituent of the molecule phosphate
An essential compound of RNA and DNA
The key components in the structure of cell membranes
The phosphate groups is of primary importance in glycolysis
Acts as a buffer
Activates many of the vitamin B-Complex vitamins
Function as coenzymes in various metabolic processes.
ABSORPTION
Phosphorus is efficiently absorbed, predominantly as free phosphate. The most favourable conditions for inorganic phosphorus absorption occur when calcium and phosphorus ingestion is similar.

Activated Vitamin D enhances phosphorus absorption just as it does for calcium.

The kidneys are primarily responsible for regulating the body content of phosphorus.

DEFPhosphorus deficiency is extremely rare
Occurs primarily in persons who use phosphate-binding antacids
These deficiencies can be the result of defective renal phosphate absorption, as seen in familial vitamin D-resistant rickets.
Symptoms include:
Fatigue
Anorexia
Demineralization of bone
Abnormal or incomplete mineralization of bone and teeth
Convulsions
ECIENCY
TOXICITY LEVELS
Hyperphosphataemia can result due to :
Renal failure
Hypoparathyroidism
Increased growth hormone
Increased release from cells as seen in starvation
skeletal demineralization and mineral resorption
Phosphorus is not toxic in large amounts
LEAD
SOURCES:
Batteries
Solder
Pottery
Cosmetics
Gasoline
Paint
Food (grown near industrial areas)
METHODS OF TOXICITY:
Interferes with iron, copper, calcium and zinc
Interrupts erythrocyte enzymes
Inactivates metalloenzymes in brain
Can react with cell membrane
Inactivates cysteine containing enzymes
May have affects on the gastrointestinal tract
Is immunosuppressant

SYMPTOMS OF TOXICITY:
Acute headache, fatigue, muscle pains, anorexia, constipation, vomiting, pallor, anemia. Agitation, irritability, restlessness, memory loss, poor coordination, vertigo and depression (lead encephalopathy)
AMOUNTS:
0-30ppm may be normal

HIGH RISK POPULATION:
Anyone working directly with lead
Work in zinc or vanadium mining
Children better absorption and smaller bodies
Pregnant women

Low level affect intelligence, attention span, language and memory. Insomnia and nightmares, hyperactivity and retardation, and senility

TREATMENT:
EDTA
Calcium and vitamin D and C supplementation
Cysteine and methionine 250mg twice daily

PREVENTION:
Do not exercise along freeways or in heavy traffic
Do not allow children to play near busy streets
Do not store food in pottery
Avoid soldered cans
Evaluate for lead levels in any questionable substances (ie water)
MERCURY
SOURCES:
Fungicides and pesticides
Cosmetics antibacterial additive
Dental fillings
Medicines
Coal burning
Fish
METHODS OF TOXICITY:
Affects the inherent protein structure
Inactivates enzymes
Damages cell membranes
Immunodepressant
May interfere with selenium
SYMPTOMS OF TOXICITY:
Inhalation
Acute fever, chills, coughing, and chest pain
Chronic fatigue, headache, insomnia, nervousness, impaired judgement and coordination, emotional liability and loss of sex drive
Ingestion fatigue, insomnia, irritability, anorexia, loss of sex drive, headache, forgetfulness or poor memory. Dizziness, tremors, uncoordination, and depression.
May cause multiple sclerosis]

AMOUNTS LEADING TO TOXICITY:
>5ppm levels

HIGH RISK POPULATION:
Farmers
Those with amalgam fillings
TREATMENT:
Drinking milk mercury acts on protein in milk
EDTA
Vitamin C, Selenium, pectin and alginates

PREVENTION:
Avoiding contact
High fiber diet
Selenium 100-20mcg

FLUORIDE
It is a trace metal
99% of body’s fluoride is stored in bones and teeth
SOURCES:
Fluoridated dental products
Fluoridated water

RECOMMENDED INTAKE:
1-4mg/day
FUNCTIONS:
Development and maintenance of teeth and bone
Combines with calcium and phosphorus to protect teeth from bacteria.
Dental caries is an infectious disease in which bacterial by-products (i.e., acids) dissolve the hard surfaces of teeth.
The bacteria can penetrate the dissolved surface, attack the underlying dentin, and reach the soft pulp tissue. Dental caries can result in loss of tooth structure, pain, and tooth loss and can progress to acute systemic infection.


Fluoride in plaque and saliva inhibits the demineralization of sound enamel and enhances the remineralization of demineralized enamel.
As cariogenic bacteria metabolize carbohydrates and produce acid, fluoride is released from dental plaque in response to lowered pH.
The released fluoride and the fluoride present in saliva are then taken up, along with calcium and phosphate, by de-mineralized enamel to establish an improved enamel crystal structure.
This improved structure is more acid resistant and contains more fluoride and less carbonate. Fluoride is more readily taken up by demineralized enamel than by sound enamel.
FLUORIDE EXCESS:
Dental fluorosis is an irreversable fluoride-induced mineralization disorder of the teeth caused by ingesting too much fluoride during the years when his/her teeth were forming.
Dental fluorosis shows up as multiple snow-white specks or a brownish stain on permanent teeth.
It is, in fact, the first visible sign that a child has been overexposed to fluoride. Fluoride causes dental fluorosis by damaging the enamel-forming cells, called ameloblasts. The damage to these cells results in enamel fluorosis, whereby the porosity of the enamel is increased.
ZINC
Zinc Present in most foods.
Zinc is a cofactor in 200 enzymes (e.g. lactate dehydrogenase and enzymes involved with DNA and protein synthesis).
It is also present in the zinc fingers of DNA binding protein.
Assists in carrying CO2 to the lungs
Formation of insulin in the pancreas Deficiency causes
Growth retardation (due to compromised DNA and protein synthesis).
Delayed wound healing
Sickle cell anemia individuals lack Zn
Stress ,infection, smoking, pregnancy, lower Zn
Pregnancy
Protein binding capacity increases
Cord levels are higher than maternal levels
Deficiency can cause
Low birth weight
neonatal deaths
Congenital malformations
Depressed synthesis of pulmonary surfactant Magnesium
Body contains 21g of magnesium
70% ,combined with Ca and K
Remainder in body fluids and soft tissues
Blood levels are 2-4 mg/dl (whole blood)
Metabolism
Absorbed from small intestine (Mg28) ---10% is excreted
Deficiency
Muscle tremors
Hyperparathroidism
Delirium tremens
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