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Chapter 5 Prezi Review - 005

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Kirstin Elliott

on 10 October 2013

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Transcript of Chapter 5 Prezi Review - 005

Chapter 5 - Body Rhythms and Mental States (Consciousness)
Purpose of Sleep
Sleep provides a time-out period, so that the body can eliminate waste products from muscles, repairs cells, conserve or replenish energy stores, strengthens the immune system, and recovers abilities lost during the day. When we do not get enough sleep, our bodies operate abnormally. Sleep is also necessary for normal mental functioning. Chronic sleep deprivation increases levels of the stress hormone cortisol, which may damage or impair brain cells that are necessary for learning and memory. Just as sleepiness can interfere with good mental functioning, a good night’s sleep can promote it, and not just because you are well rested. Sleep also plays a more active role by contributing to consolidation, in which synaptic changes associated with recently stored memories become durable and stable. Sleep is very much needed and beneficial mentally and physically.
Dream Theories
Dreams are “unconscious wishes”.
 They express forbidden or unrealistic wishes and desires that have been forced into the unconscious part of the mind or disguised as symbolic images.
 Dreams reflect ongoing conscious issues such as relationships, work, sex, and health. They help us solve or work through problems.
 Dreams are the same activities we engage in while awake, but the brain is cut off from external stimulation.
 Psychoanalytic interpretations are often far-fetched.

Stages of Sleep
Stage 1: The brain waves are small and irregular. It is a stage of light sleep. Your heart rate increases, your blood pressure rises, and your breathing increases. Most skeletal muscles go limp, preventing aroused brain from producing physical movement. You have now entered the realm of REM.
Stage 2: Occasional short burst of rapid, high peaking waves called sleep spindles. Minor noises probably won’t disturb sleep.
Stage 3: Brain waves are similar to that of stage 2, waves with very high peaks. Breathing and pulse have slowed down, Muscles are relaxed, and you are hard to awaken.
Stage 4: Delta waves have now largely taken over, and you are in deep sleep. Stage 4 takes vigorous shaking or loud noises to awaken you.
REM: Because the brain is extremely active while the body is entirely inactive, REM sleep has also been known as “Paradoxical Sleep”. You experience periods of rapid eye movement. These periods last from a few minutes to as long as an hour, averaging about 20 minutes in length. Whenever they begin, the pattern of electrical activity from the sleeper’s brain changes to resemble that of alert wakefulness. Brain waves are rapid and somewhat irregular.

Circadian Rhythms
Circadian Rhythms Key Points: 1. Exist in plants, animals and human beings. 2. Reflect the adaption of organisms to many changes associated within environment 3. People's circadian rhythms follows a 24 hour schedule What Controls Circadian Rhythms: -Circadian rhythms are controlled by a biological clock, or overall coordinator located in a small cluster of cells in the hypothalamus, called suprachiasmatic nucleus - The SCN sends out messages that focus the brain and body to adapt to changes, as well as regulates levels of hormones When The Clock is out of Sync: -Internal desynchronization occurs when people switch time zones. Although sleep and wake patterns usually adjust quickly, but temperature and hormone cycles can take several days to return to normal. This affects energy levels, mental skills, and motor coordination.
Drug Effects
Altered States of Consciousness
• Psychoactive drugs are stimulants that induce feelings. In general, the drug themselves alter the moods and long-term rhythms because the addiction to the drugs. Some drugs such as nicotine, make you change the priorities because you body craves that drug! Also, the drugs like cocaine can cause euphoria and feelings of energy.
• When your SCN is out of sync, sleep/wake patterns adjust quickly; however, temperature and hormones adjust slowly affecting energy, mental skills, and coordination.
• Experience in dream world:
 Alters expectations by promoting potentially unmatchable experiences. To explain, the ability to fly in your dreams is unrealistic because you gain all the pros without the cons. Not only can you not fly in real life unless in an airplane or something, but if you were able to have the ability to fly you would suffocate if you venture too high.
 Lucid dreaming leads to addictions of neurotransmitter release that can’t be generated by real life events. Such as when you are dreaming you can control you’re thoughts and feelings in your dream and you are completely aware you are dreaming,
• Hypnosis potentially alters current perception of a particular event or thought; however, it cannot be changed without the wildness of the individual to change it. It could indirectly change your mood by changing the perception of an object.

• Hypnosis is based only on the principle of suggestion.
• A hypnotist makes suggestions to an individual to suggest changes in sensations, perception, thoughts, feeling, or behavior.
• Someone has to want to do actions under hypnosis.
• Hypnosis depends on effort from the person being hypnotized.
• People cannot be forced to do anything against their will under hypnosis.
• Acts performed under hypnosis cannot exceed the physical ability of the person hypnotized.
• Hypnosis does not increase the accuracy or retention of memory.
• The sociocognitive approach to hypnosis says Hypnosis works if the person believes it will work.

Drug Classification
1. Physiological drug effects are mainly due to the interactions with brain neurotransmitters, the substances that carry messages to the brain. A drug may increase or decrease the release of neurotransmitters at the synapse, prevent the absorption of excess neurotransmitter molecules by the cells that have released them, block the effects of a neurotransmitter on a receiving nerve cell, or bind to receptors that would ordinarily be triggered by a neurotransmitter.

2. The effects of psychoactive drugs can depend on a person’s experience with the drug, individual characteristics, environmental setting, and mental set. Some psychoactive drugs can lead to tolerance while others, if you don’t take them, can lead to withdrawal. Four points of the psychological effects from drugs are:

1. Experience with the drug refers to the number of times a person has taken it.
2. Individual characteristics include body weight, metabolism, initial state of emotional arousal, personality characteristics, and physical tolerance for the drug.
3. “Environmental setting” refers to the content in which the person takes the drug.
4. “Mental set” refers to a person’s expectations about the drug’s effects and reasons for taking it.

3. A psychoactive drug is a substance that alters perception, mood, thinking, memory, or behavior by changing the body’s biochemistry. Most of the drugs can be classified as stimulants, depressants, opiates, or psychedelics depending on their effects to the body. Various reasons for taking psychoactive drugs include consciousness alteration, religious reasons, recreation, to decrease pain, and also psychological escape. Stimulants speed up activity in the central nervous system. Depressants slow down activity in the central nervous system. Opiates relieve pain. Psychedelic drugs disrupt normal thought processes such as time and space.
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