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Copy of Copy of Time-Division Multiplexing
Transcript of Copy of Copy of Time-Division Multiplexing
Two Types of TDM
Remember this formulas!
Multiplexed Data Rate:
Formulas for Synchronous TDM
In synchronous TDM, the data flow of each
connection is divided into units, where each
input occupies one input time slot.
TDM, FDM, WDM
Disadvantages of STDM
Illustration of TDM
A multiplexer combines three 200kbps data channels using a times slot of 2 bits per slot. What is the frame rate, frame duration, data rate and slot duration? Note: f/s=40k
Channel Rate x No. of Channels
Channel Bit Duration x No.of Bits per Slot
Channel Data Rate x No. of Bits per Slot
Frames per Second x No. of Channels
Advantages of STDM
Full available channel bandwidth can be utilized for each channel.
lntermodulation distortion is absent.
TDM circuitry is not very complex.
The problem of crosstalk is not severe.
If any device does not have data to send then
its time slot remains empty.
Data rate = 200 kbps x 3 = 600 kbps
Frame rate = 600 kbps/6bpf = 100 kbps
Frame Duration = 1/40k = 25us
Slot Duration = 25us/3 = 8.33us
The channel capacity cannot be fully used. Some of the slots go empty in certain frames.
The capacity of single communication line that is used to carry the various transmission should be greater than the total speed of input lines.
Multiplexing in STDM
Every device is given the opportunity
to transmit a specific amount of data onto the link.
The interleaved units are of same size.
CPE - ECE Dept. DLSU
Khristine Shara Lee M. Teves, David Miguel B. dela Cruz
A technique that separates each channel by putting them in different bandwidth frequencies within the bandwidth of the medium.
A channel occupies a fraction of the
bandwidth and each channel is
modulated into a Carrier Frequency
Diagram of FDM
Diagram of FDM
Uses of FDM
Mainly used for analog transmissions. It can be used over both wired and wireless mediums.
An example of an application that uses FDM is FM radio. FM is a band that occupies the frequency range from 88 MHz to 108 MHz within the larger radio frequency spectrum. Each radio station transmits at the frequency assigned to its channel.
Same goes with cable television, The TV transmission cable carries all available channels at their assigned frequencies.
Disadvantages of FDM
The communication channel must have a very large bandwidth.
Intermodulation distortion takes place.
All the FDM channels get affected due to wideband fading.
Advantages of FDM
A large number of signals (channels) can be transmitted simultaneously.
FDM does not need synchronization between its transmitter and receiver for proper operation.
Demodulation of FDM is easy.
Large number of modulators and filters are required.
FDM suffers from the problem of crosstalk.
A method by which multiple analog message signals or digital data streams are combined into one signal over a shared medium.
Types of Multiplexing
A technique where optical signals with different wavelengths are combined, transmitted together, and separated again.
Disadvantages of WDM
Complex transmitters and receivers.
Expensive and probably less reliable.
Uses of WDM
Used for optical fiber communications to transmit data in several (or even many) channels with slightly different wavelengths
Also used for interrogating multiple fiber-optic sensors within a single fiber
Two Types of WDM
A more flexible method of TDM. With this the
length of time allocated is not fixed for each
device but time is given to devices that have
data to transmit.
This works by tagging each frame with an
identification number to note which device it
Disadvantage/s of ATDM
Require more processing by the multiplexor and take longer than STDM.
Advantages of ATDM
Efficient and effective bandwidth utilization saves time.
Frames can have different sizes.
Allows more devices than there is physical bandwidth for.
Good utilization of trunk.
Multiplexing in ATDM
The number of time slots in a frame is based on a statistical analysis of number of input lines.
Slots are not predefined and are allocated to any of the device that has data to send.
The multiplexer scans the various input lines, accepts the data from the lines that have data to send, fills the frame and then sends the frame across the link
Advantages of WDM
Fewer channels or wires transmit and receive data
Can be easily upgraded.
Transmit more data over the current fibers.
This is the technology of choice for cost efficiently transporting large amounts of data traffic in telecoms or enterprise networks.
Optical networking and especially the use of CWDM technology has proven to be the most cost efficient way of addressing this requirement.
This is a technology that puts data from different sources together on an optical fiber, with each signal carried at the same time on its own separate light wavelength.
Also used to increase bandwidth over existing
fiber optic backbones.
Illustration of FDM