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PORTER AND LAWLER MODEL OF MOTIVATION

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Em Ventura

on 15 June 2016

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Transcript of PORTER AND LAWLER MODEL OF MOTIVATION

EXPECTANCY THEORY
EDWARD E. LAWLER III
BACKGROUND
In the early 1960s, Victor Vroom applied concepts of behavioural research conducted in the 1930s by Kurt Lewin and Edward Tolman directly to work motivation. Basically, Vroom suggested that individuals choose work behaviours that they believe lead to outcomes they value. In deciding how much effort to put into a work behaviour, individuals are likely to consider:

1. EXPECTANCY
2. INSTRUMENTALITY
3. VALENCE

In the late 1960s, Porter and Lawler published an extension of the Vroom expectancy model, which is known as the Porter-Lawler expectancy model or simply the Porter-Lawler model. Although the basic premise of the Porter-Lawler model is the same as for Vroom's model, the Porter-Lawler model is more complex in a number of ways.

PORTER AND LAWLER’S MODEL
DR. LYMAN W. PORTER
PORTER AND LAWLER MODEL OF MOTIVATION
Dr. Lyman W. Porter, the former dean of the University of California, Irvine, Graduate School of Management (now known as The Paul Merage School of Business) died on July 2, 2015 in Newport Beach, California. He was 85.
Lyman William Porter was born in 1930 in Lafayette, Indiana. He was the youngest of three sons born to Charles Lyman Porter, a professor of biology at Purdue University, and his wife Mary Allen. Dr. Porter wrote in a personal history that he was “a product of a middle-class, middle west upbringing.”, and continued that his, “roots and basic character formation were anchored in my first eighteen years growing up in a college town in Indiana.”
In addition to leading the creation of the MBA program at the UCI Graduate School of Management, he achieved AACSB accreditation, a challenging task for such a small, new school. He was the first to build the a fore mentioned strong community relationships and worked tirelessly to ensure the school admitted the most outstanding students and hired the most promising faculty members, establishing the school’s leading global academic reputation that remains today.

Edward E. Lawler III is distinguished Professor of Business at the University of Southern California, Marshall School of Business. He joined USC in 1978 and during 1979, founded and became director of the University's Center for Effective Organizations (CEO). CEO has been recognized by Fortune and other publications as one of the country’s leading management research organizations.
Professor Lawler has been honored as a major contributor to theory, research, and practice in the fields of human resources management, compensation, organizational development, and organizational effectiveness.
VICTOR VROOM’S EXPECTANCY THEORY
- The theory states that actual performance in a job is primarily determined by the effort spent. But it is also affected by the person’s ability to do the job and also by individual’s perception of what the required task is.

- Performance is the responsible factor that leads to intrinsic as well as extrinsic rewards. These rewards, along with the equity of individual leads to satisfaction.

- Hence, satisfaction of the individual depends upon the fairness of the reward.

ASSUMPTIONS
1. Individual behavior is determined by a combination of factors in the individual and in the environment

2. Individuals are assumed to be rational human beings who make conscious decisions about their behavior in the organization.

3. Individuals have different needs, desires and goals.

4. On the basis of their expectation, individuals decide between alternate behavior and such decided behavior will lead to a desired outcome.
ELEMENTS
ELEMENTS
1.
Value of Reward
- people try to figure out whether the rewards that are likely to be received from doing a job will be attractive to them. This is referred to as valence in Vroom’s theory.
2.
Perceived Effort Reward Probability
- before people put forth any effort, they will also try to assess the probability of a certain level of effort leading to a desired level of performance and the possibility of that performance leading to certain kinds of rewards. Based on the valence of the reward and the effort reward probability, people can decide to put in certain level of work effort.
3.
Effort

- refers to the amount of energy which a person exerts on a job.

4.
Abilities and Traits
- Abilities include knowledge, skills and intellectual capacity to perform the job. Traits which are important for many jobs are endurance, perseverance, and goal directedness. Thus, abilities and traits will moderate the effort- performance relationship.
5.
Role Perception
- people performing the jobs should have accurate role perception which refers to the wav in which people define for the jobs. People may perceive their roles differently. Only those, who perceive their roles as is defined by the organization, will be able to perform well when they put forth the requisite effort.

6.
Performance
- Effort leads to performance. The expected level of performance will depend upon the amount of effort, the abilities and traits of the individual and his role perceptions.

7a.
Intrinsic Rewards
- Intrinsic rewards are internal feelings of job sell esteem and sense of competence that individuals feel when they do a good job.

7b.
Extrinsic Rewards
- Extrinsic rewards are the external rewards given by others in the organization in the form of money, recognition or praise.

8.
Perceived Equitable Rewards
- for being satisfied, an individual will compare his actual rewards with the perceived rewards. If actual rewards meet or exceed perceived equitable rewards, the individual will feel satisfied and if these are less than the equitable rewards, the individual will feel dissatisfied.

9.
Satisfaction
- Satisfaction will result from both extrinsic and intrinsic rewards.
Significance of the Porter and Lawler Model
This model is of great significance to managers since it sensitises them to focus their attention on the following points to keep their employees motivated:

1. Match the abilities and traits of individuals to the requirements of the job by putting the right person on the right job.

2. He should carefully explain to the subordinates their roles or what they must do to be rewarded. Then he must make sure that they understand it.

3. Prescribe in concrete terms the actual performance levels expected of the individuals and these levels should be made attainable.

4. To achieve and maintain motivation, the appropriate reward must be associated with successful performance.

5. Make sure that the rewards dispensed are valued by the employees. Thus, he should find out what rewards are attractive to the employee and see if such rewards can be given to him.
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