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Transcript of Embedded Systems
What's the importance of
embedded systems in our life ??
The medical devices now are full of embedded systems
Embedded Systems In Medicine
Embedded Systems In Automobiles
Embedded systems can be used to implement features ranging from adjustment of the suspension to suit road conditions and the octane content in the fuel to anti lock braking systems (ABS) and security systems.
Anti-lock brake system (ABS):
pumps brakes to reduce skidding
Automatic stability control (ASC):
controls engine to improve stability.
ABS and ASC communicate.
ABS needed to interface to existing ABS module.
Embedded systems can also make driverless vehicle control a reality. Major automobile manufacturers are already engaged in work on these concepts. One such technology is Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC)
ACC allows cars to keep safe distances from other vehicles on busy highways. The driver can set the speed of his car and the distance between his car and others. When traffic slows down, ACC alters vehicle speed using moderate braking.
Each car with ACC has a micro wave radar unit or laser transceiver fixed in front of it to determine the distance and relative speed of any vehicle in the path.
THE WORKING PRINCIPLE OF ADAPTIVE CRUISE CONTROL:-
As each car with ACC have a micro wave radar unit fixed in front of it to determine the distance and relative speed of any vehicle in it’s path. The principle behind the working of this type of radar is:
The Doppler Effect.
Doppler Effect is the change in frequency of the waves when there is a relative motion between the transmitting and receiving units. The Doppler Effect can be categorize in two ways:-
1-Higher Pitch Sound.
2-Lower Pitch Sound.
1. HIGHER PITCH SOUND:
In this case the vehicle is speeding towards the stationary listener. The distance between the listener and the car is decreasing. Then the listener will hear a higher pitch sound from the car, which means the frequency of sound, is increased.
2-LOWER PITCH SOUND:-
In this case the vehicle is moving away from the listener. The distance between and the car is increasing. Then the listener will hear a lower pitch sound from the car, which means the frequency of sound, is decreased. So that is the Doppler Effect in case of sound waves.
WORKING OF A.C.C.:-
In this case, the gun transmits the waves at a given frequency toward an oncoming car. Reflecting waves return to the gun at a different frequency, depending on how fast the car being tracked is moving. A device in the gun compares the transmission frequency to the received frequency to determine the speed of the car.
We can design the chip or ACC having an algorithm such that it will give output only when the input signals are less than the corresponding safe distance value. So only when the between the car and the object in front of it is less than the same distance value the embedded system will give output to the breaking and the accelerating units. Thus the safe distance will be kept always. That’s how the ACC works.
ABOUT THE IMPORTANCE OF ADAPTIVE CRUISE CONTROL:
At a safe distance behind, your car settles to a speed matching that of the driver in front of you. That’s too slow, so after a look in your rear view mirror you pull into the empty outside lane and feel the acceleration as your car speeds up to the preset cruising speed. You still haven’t press the accelerator pedal. That’s the beauty of this racing star of the auto industry, a millimeter- wave radar technology that promises to make driving easier.
Embedded systems can be used to implement features ranging from the way pacemakers operate and mobile phone that can be worn as jewellery to adaptive cruise control (ACC)
2-Intelligent Anti-Theft and Tracking System for Automobiles
The system has a security unit which is embedded in the vehicle. This unit consists of: a
GSM modem, GPS receiver, control relay, current sensor and Microcontroller.
1) Consumer Electronics
2) Household appliances
Why Do we use embedded system in the medical devices ?
It was hard to add any small change to the device
for example :
if you want to update the device yo would re-design
the whole devices again which was a very expensive
3) Advanced HVAC systems
With the presence of the embedded system in
the medical devices all what you need to update
the device is to change the program code on the
embedded system which is a cheaper process than
re-designing the whole device again
Examples of These Devices
A glucose meter or (glucometer) is a medical device used to determine the approximate concentration of
glucose in the blood
It is considered the key element of home blood glucose monitoring by people with diabetes as it is easy to use .
you only have to take a drop of blood through a strip and the device will produce the result
The role of the embedded system in this device is to control the blood test cycle and it also test the temperature and the battery to make sure of having accurate results
Where it's is used ??
2)Magnetic resonance imaging
to more accurately
and efficiently control temperature that can be
change by time and season
It is a medical imaging technique used in radiology to visualize the internal structure of the body in detail
Its components :
1) The patient table
2)Magnetic field and Radio frequency resources
3)Electromagnetic field detector
4) Home Automation
The role of the embedded system in this device is to:
1)control the movement of the patient table inside and outside
2)control the strength of the magnetic field and the electromagnetic field detector affecting the patient
3) control the strength of the radio frequency which affects the patient and is produced from the radio frequency sources
4)And finally it produces its output which is the image of the internal structure of the body organs
Definition and History
a computer system (combination of computer hardware and software) designed to control or monitor a larger system.
Often with real-time computing constraints.
a general-purpose computer, such as a personal computer (PC), is designed to be flexible and to meet a wide range of end-user needs.
versions of Linux, Windows and Mac.
As well as other operating systems specialized for
systems typically have limited storage.
OS is often designed to work in much less memory than desktop operating systems.
system is housed on a single microprocessor board with the programs stored in ROM.
Therefore, many of
systems are so specialized that the entire logic can be implemented as a single program and no need for an OS.
Systems were initially used for large and safety-critical applications such as rocket & satellite control, energy production control and flight control.
They are now used in almost all the advanced products designed in the world:
Electrical and electronic appliances (cameras, toys, televisions, home appliances, audio systems, and cell phones).
Process control (energy production and distribution, factory automation and optimization). Telecommunications (satellites and mobile phones). Security (e-commerce, smart cards).
Health (hospital equipment, mobile monitoring), etc.
Apollo Guidance Computer:
One of the first recognizably modern embedded systems was the Apollo Guidance Computer, developed by Charles Stark Draper at the MIT Instrumentation Laboratory.
The Apollo Guidance Computer
(AGC) was a digital computer produced for the Apollo program.
The AGC provided computation and electronic interfaces for guidance, navigation, and control of the spacecraft.
In the earliest years of computers in the 1940s, computers were sometimes dedicated to a single task.
But, were far too large and expensive for most kinds of tasks
computers of today.
The Minuteman missile:
The Minuteman-I Autonetics D-17 flight computer was also one of the very first embedded systems.
A reprogrammable inertial guidance system was a major
in the original program.
When first proposed,
had built a digital computer that would fit in a missile.
A digital computer was essential to obtain the accuracy gains that kept this weapon effective throughout the
Another gain that persuaded program managers to accept the risk of the computer was that the computer could also be used to test the missile.
A 4-bit central processing unit (CPU) released by Intel Corporation in 1971.
It is a complete CPU on one chip and also the first commercially available microprocessor.
The project that produced the 4004 originated in 1969 when a Japanese calculator manufacturer, asked Intel to build a chip
set for high-performance desktop calculators.
As the cost of microprocessors and micro- controllers fell, By the mid-1980s, most of the common previously external system components had been integrated into the same chip as the processor.
This modern form of the micro-controller allowed an even more widespread use, which by the end of the decade were the norm rather than the exception for almost all electronics devices.
Audio / Visual
5) Transportation Systems
New airplanes contain advanced avionics
such as inertial guidance systems and GPS receivers that also have considerable safety requirements.
Automatic 4-wheel drive
Automobiles use embedded systems to efficiency and pollution.
Various electric motors
brushless DC motors, induction motors and DC motors.
use electric/electronic motor controllers.
6) Medical Equipments
Medical equipment is continuing to advance with more embedded systems for
Various medical imaging
(PET, SPECT, CT, MRI)
for non-invasive internal inspections.
vital signs monitoring
for amplifying sounds
Embedded Systems Design
Data Width is the width of the ALU.
iphone -> 32-bit RISC ARM
More stability and reliability
Testability & Debugability
few MHz to 30 to 50 MHz
(easily modified , reusable)
we require a language that is efficient, high-level, gives low-level access to hardware, and is well defined. In addition - of course - the language must be available for the platforms we wish to use. Against all of these points,
Software written using Arduino are called sketches.
Sketches are saved with the file extension .ino.
The console displays text output by the Arduino environment including complete error messages and other information.
Arduino Development Environment
contains a text editor for writing code, a message area, a text console, a toolbar with buttons for common functions, and a series of menus. It connects to the Arduino hardware to upload programs and communicate with them.
Let's try it !