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Water Resources Management Issue for Agriculture

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simon ho

on 12 March 2015

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Transcript of Water Resources Management Issue for Agriculture


Background
Issue of concern
Challenges
Solutions/Recommendations
Case Study
Present by Simon
Present by Martin
Present by Ken
Present by Crystal
Present by William and Kenneth
Reference
Question and Answer
Water Resources Management for Agriculture
World Population
At the close of the
20th century
, agriculture used a global average of
70%

of all water withdrawals
USA
China
India
Pakistan
Australia
Spain

Example of big food producing countries
Ten
most important crops in the World
According to the U.N., farmers need at least
2,000 liters
of water to harvest
one kilogram of rice
.
Corn Wheat Rice
Potatoes Cassava Soybeans sweet Potatoes
Sorghum Yams Plantains
Demand of water in
20th century

increased rapidly especially in Agriculture sector
Use of Water in Agriculture
Seed germination

Pesticide application
Irrigation
A media for fertilizer placement
Washing of harvest
Sources of Water
Surface sources
Ground Sources
Reuse Sources
Impounding reservoirs
Irrigation canals
Streams
Rivers
Lakes
Springs Wells
Waste water
Reusable water
(US Census 2011)
(FAO of UN, 2015)
(Business insider, 2011)
(University of British Columbia, 2014)
(2014: 7.1 billion)
AccuTherm. (2015).
Wastewater Treatment and Freeze Protection.
Retrieved on March 1, 2015 from http://blog.accutherm.com/wastewater-treatment-freeze-protection/
Business insider. (2011).

The 10 most important crops in the world. R
etrieved from http://www.businessinsider.com/10-crops-that-feed-the-world-2011-9?op=1
Campbell, R. (2013)
.
More Food, Less Water: Top 6 Farming Practices to Better Manage Water Use.
Retrieved from http://foodtank.com/news/2013/03/more-food-less-water-top-6-farming-practices-to-better-manage-water-use
China News. (2014).
Experts said China's urban water supply an annual loss of more than 2000 Kunming Lake volume.
Retrieved from http://www.chinanews.com/gn/2014/04-19/6082902.shtml
Durham, B., Rinck-Pfeiffer, S., & Guendert, D. (2015)
.
Sustainable solutions to water scarcity.
Retrieved on February 22, 2015 from http://www.waterworld.com/articles/wwi/print/volume-17/issue-5/features/sustainable-solutions-to-water-scarcity.html
FAO of UN. (2015).

global sum of all withdrawals.
Retrieved from http://www.fao.org/nr/water/aquastat/water_use/index.stm
FAO of UN. (2015).

Estimated annual world water use.
Retrieved from http://www.fao.org/docrep/u8480e/u8480e0c.htm
Haddaway, A. (2015).

Nutrient Recovery Technology Transforms World’s Largest Wastewater Treatment Plant.
Retrieved on February 22, 2015 from http://www.waterworld.com/articles/print/volume-31/issue-2/features/nutrient-recovery-technology-transforms-world-s-largest-wastewater-treatment-plant.html
McDonald, K. (2013).
Thirty-five Water Conservation Methods for Agriculture, Farming, and Gardening.
Retrieved from http://www.bigpictureagriculture.com/2013/02/thirty-five-water-conservation-methods-agriculture-farming-gardening-323.html
OECD. (2010).

Sustainable Management of Water Resources in Agriculture.
Retrieved from http://www.oecd.org/tad/sustainable-agriculture/49040929.pdf
Population Pyramids. (2015).
World population from 1950 to 2100(2015).
Retrieved from http://populationpyramid.net/world/2015/
Rochedale Community Garden Inc. (2013).
Build a Wicking Bed.
Retrieved from http://rochedalecommunitygarden.net.au/workshops/build-a-wicking-bed/

The Nature Conservancy. (2015).

Nature’s Values: Water Conservation Through Agricultural Practices.
Retrieved from
https://www.conservationgateway.org/ConservationPractices/EcosystemServices/NaturesValues/NaturesValuesWaterConservationThroughAgriculturalPractices/Pages/natureE2%80%99s-values-water-con.aspx
The State of China’s Agriculture. (2014)
. Ministry of Land & Resources groundwater survey (Feb 2013).
Retrieved from http://chinawaterrisk.org/resources/analysis-reviews/the-state-of-chinas-agriculture/
The Wildlife Trusts. (2013)
.
Long-term solutions needed to address flooding of agricultural land
. Retrieved from http://www.wildlifetrusts.org/news/2013/10/21/long-term-solutions-needed-address-flooding-agricultural-land
Udn.com. (2014).
Why fallow than 41,000 hectares of agricultural water for industrial use.
Retrieved from http://money.udn.com/storypage.php?sub_id=5648&art_id=604030
US Census. (2011).
world population: 1950-2050.
Retrieved from http://www.census.gov
University of British Columbia. (2014)
.
water use in m3/ton, virtual water calculation.
Retrieved from http://wmc.landfood.ubc.ca/webapp/VWM/course/food-export-virtual-water/virtual-water-calculation/









A. Water pollution
B. Water supply
Issue of concern
Source:
Urban sewage

Industrial Wastewater

Livestock Wastewater
A. Water pollution
1. Suspension solid:
Stuff the irrigation system,
Reduce soil permeability,
Soil degradation

2. Organic matter:
a.Organic acids
b. Affect the soil pH value

3. Toxic substances:
a. Heavy elements
b. Crop Withered
How Water pollution affects agriculture:
How Water pollution affects agriculture: (Con’t)
4. Solid Waste
Breeding pest
Environmental pollution
Reduce
Crop production
Poor
quality of crop
Accumulation of
toxic substance
in soil
Reduce
land value
Damage the
drain water
and system
Pesticide failure
Increase the production
cost


Result:

1. Drainage system:
Soil aeration
Soil salinity
Soil Mineral

2. Irrigation System:
Increase production
Filtration system (ensure water quality)
B. Water supply
Reservoir:
Flooding
in Rainy season
Poor Reservoir >
silt up
>
contamination
> Environmental
pollution


Water supply (Con’t)

Pollutant:
Grease, Odor, Turbid, Color, Highly toxic substances
A. Water pollution:
Water Pollution in Developing Countries
1. Suffered from severe ground water pollution:
over
70%
of overall groundwater quality classified as
Grade IV+

Low enforcement of sewage treatment
Low education: inappropriate method of fertilizing and pesticide application
B. Water Supply
1. Rapid Population Growth
2. Climate Change
Agriculture and climate change are inextricably linked
High frequent of Drought/heat waves:
Evaporate ground water
Decrease water supply
Cause yield lost if not counteracted by irrigation
C. Water Utilization
1. Inappropriate Method of irrigation
Flood irrigation method
Low of irrigation water efficiency:









In Ningxia: 1 cubic meter of water = 2 pounds of grains

2. Inadequate irrigation facilities
Pipe Leakage: 15% leakage rate in china pipe network
billion cubic meters water can be saved by trimming down leakage rate to 5%
Financial Implication

B. Water Supply (con't)
Group 7
Group Member

Ho Kin Kuen Simon 14438801 Chen Jian Kenneth 14404915
Chan Sze Nga Crystal 14438836 Tang Cheuk Ting Martin 14453746
Wu Weilin William 14456265 Yip Sing Yau Ken 14453754
Prevention

1. Organic farming
NO pesticides & chemical fertilizers

2.Monitoring & Regulations
Pollutants discharge limit
A. Solutions for water pollution

A. Solutions for water pollution

3.Water purification
mechanized treatment
Rhizofiltration

4.Nutrient Recovery
Nutrient in wastewater
-> fertilizers (eg. Phosphorus)
1.Reuse highly treated wastewater
Direct irrigation
Groundwater aquifer recharge
 
2.Seawater desalination
B. Solutions for water scarcity

1. Drip irrigation
Systems of plastic tubing with small holes
Delivers water (& fertilizer) on the soil surface / roots of plants
Conserves
50 to 70%
more water
Water & fertilizers more easily absorbed by the soil & plants
B. Solutions for water scarcity

2. Zero irrigation system
Retain water in wicking bed
Capillary action brings water up
B. Solutions for water scarcity
Water conservation
B. Solutions for water scarcity
3.Variable rate irrigation
Removing non-crop areas from irrigation through GPS-based software
Access data (eg. temp & soil moisture) from computer / smartphone
->make changes to irrigation plans in real-time
-> saving water

4.Bottle Irrigation
slow release of water
5. Increase water retention in soil
Composting, mulching, intercropping, crop rotation, planting perennial crops, no-till farming etc.

6. Maintenance of Irrigation facilities
Prevent leakage
B. Solutions for water scarcity

B. Solutions for water scarcity

Increase water supply
Water conservation
Water conservation
Water conservation
7. Increase water charges
full cost recovery
evidence showed improved water use efficiency

8.Well-planned water allocation between different users

Water conservation
Issues of Concerns and Challenges:

Very Similar Condition in Shandong!!
Issues of Concern
Application period of time
Application dosage
Soil, Water and Climate condition in Long Island, NY, US.
Ground water application for the local residents

Challenges:
Aldicarb Persist in the Ground Water of NY for Years !!!
Issues of Concerns and Challenges
Long Term and Overdose Application of Aldicarb
and
The Risk Caused to Ground Water Resources in
Shandong Province
Case Study: Pesticide in Agriculture and Ground Water
Case: Ginger Scandal in China
Challenges: Aldicarb and Ground Water
Treatment
The government needs to monitor the groundwater in the certain time

The government should add aldicarb to the testing item of groundwater monitoring.
Monitoring
Create reaction condition for aldicarb to Keep the safe level of aldicarb in the groundwater.
Treatment and disposal
Education
- teach the farmers to use aldicarb in the safe dose.
- teach the farmers to treat pest in the scientific way, such as rotation.

Subsidy
- give adequate allowance to the farmers who use safe and high-tech ways to plant ginger.

Penalty
- punishment of improper use of aldicarb.
Treatment at the source
Solutions and recommendations
Treatment at the source

Monitoring

Treatment and disposal after being polluted
-- preventing groundwater polluted by aldicarb
(Population Pyramids, 2015)
(China News, 2014)
Water soluble
Overdose
Directly apply to soil
Leaching
Climate condition in SD
pH condition in soil in SD
pH condition in water in SD
Overdose
Accumulate in ground water
Lack of tap water in some
countryside of the North China
Surface water shortage
Tend to consume ground water (well)
National ground water standards lacks of aldicarb detection
Long term consumption of contaminated ground water
The ginger growers usually apply aldicarb 3~6 times overdose.
(Fenghuang News)
( According to GB/T 14848-9, there is no aldicarb monitoring in the quality standard for groundwater)
(including the public water sources and private wells)
Global demand and supply gap
Increase water demand from different sectors
insufficient of water supply
Flooding
Excessive water
Destroy irrigation system
Significant production losses
Irrigation water utilization coefficient : Net amount of water used by crops
----------------------------------------------------
Total amount of water withdrawn from
river channels or reservoirs

Level of China < 0.52
Level of developed countries 0.7
Why fallow than 41,000 hectares of agricultural water for industrial use?
(Udn.com, 2014)
(The State of China’s Agriculture, 2014)
(AccuTherm, 2015)
(McDonald, 2013)

(Rochedale Community Garden Inc., 2013)

(Gardener's Supply Company, 2015)
By Soren, J. & Stelz W. G.,(1984)

Study Result of Aldicarb Contamination in NY
What’s Worse: Ground Water Contaminated by ALDICARB!!!
NEW YORK CASE should be mentioned FIRST!
(5+ years)
(neutral and 11°C on yearly average)
(in large area)
1. Rain shelter / Greenhouse
Withstand heavy rain
Protect the crops


2. Drainage system
Unimpeded pipes , de-silt watercourses
-->Carry away water efficiently
C. Solutions for excessive water
3. Deeper furrow
Harder for crops to immerse in water
Conducive to drainage






4. Creating / restoring wetland areas
Making space for water

C. Solutions for excessive water
How agriculture affects water source?
Pollution of pesticides and fertilizers
At the agriculture production process:
Overuse of pesticides and fertilizers (increase production in short term)
Difficult of Decomposition
Residual Toxic substances
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