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Mustafa Baiwala

on 20 May 2014

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Transcript of Colombia

Most Colombian government institutions have a reputation for inefficient, corrupt, and bureaucratic management, with the notable exceptions of the Central Bank, Ministry of Finance, and some other agencies responsible for economic policy formulation – by Drug Cartel
Drug Cartels
Very Recent Issue
Main Actors
1.Colombian government,
2. paramilitary groups,
3.Crime syndicates and left-wing guerrillas such as the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia,
4.National Liberation Army (ELN), They all are fighting each other to increase their influence in Colombian territory.

Government of colombia
The Government of Colombia is a republic with separation of powers into executive, judicial and legislative branches. Its legislature has a congress, its judiciary has a supreme court, and its executive branch has a president.
The citizens of Colombia cast votes concerning their government, and they employ a public sector office for an inspector general to oversee the public interface of the government. This safeguards the public, and guarantee the human rights spelled out in the Constitution of 1991, which provides the framework for a welfare state and a unitary republic.
Right wing paramilitary groups
Right-wing paramilitary groups in Colombia are the parties responsible for most of the human rights violations in the latter half of the ongoing Colombian Armed Conflict. According to several international human rights and governmental organizations, right-wing paramilitary groups have been responsible for at least 70 to 80% of political murders in Colombia per year, with the remainder committed by leftist guerrillas and government forces. Paramilitary groups control the large majority of the illegal drug trade of cocaine and other substances together with the main Colombian drug cartels, especially in terms of trafficking and processing activities.
The first paramilitary groups were organized by the Colombian military following recommendations made by U.S. military counterinsurgency advisers who were sent to Colombia during the Cold War to combat leftist political activists and armed guerrilla groups. The development of later paramilitary groups has also involved elite landowners, drug traffickers, members of the security forces, politicians and multinational corporations. Paramilitary violence today is principally targeted towards peasants, unionists, indigenous people, human rights workers, teachers and left-wing political activists or their supporters. The paramilitaries claim to be acting in opposition to revolutionary Marxist-Leninist guerrilla forces and their allies among the civilian population.
Revolutionary Armed Forces
The Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia—People's Army are an irregular military organization involved in the continuing Colombian armed conflict since 1964.[9][10][11][12] The FARC-EP have a claim to be an army of peasant Marxist-Leninists with a political platform of agrarianism and anti-imperialism inspired by Bolivarianism.[citation needed] The operations of the FARC–EP are funded by kidnap to ransom, illegal mining, extortion and the production and distribution of illegal drugs.

National Liberation Army
The National Liberation Army is an armed group involved in the continuing Colombian armed conflict. [4] who have existed in Colombia since 1964. The ELN advocate a composite Communist ideology of Marxism and Liberation Theology; they conduct military operations throughout the national territory of Colombia; in 2013, it was estimated that the ELN forces consisted of between 1,380 to 3,000 guerrillas.
The Dominant Spanish Class
Liberal and Conservatives
The first 2 parties were the liberal and conservatives. These parties were rivals
Two Main Guerrilla Groups
Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia—People's Army
Drugs That Fuel the Conflict
A Weak Government
The presence of the government has always been weak due to
Campesino colonization of peripheral areas. Meaning the poor whites, poor whites, mestizos, Afro-Colombians and mulatos.

Poverty is surrounding Colombia , social injustice and violence, 46% of Colombia’s population are poor Colombia has one of the strictest stratified social systems in the world.

Colombia's social strata has been divided as follows and has been extensively used by the government as a reference to develop social welfare programs, statistical information and to some degree for the assignment of lands.

Colombian Issue
Going back to history. Colombia had this ruling Spanish class, mainly dominant. Basically, they were rich whereas the majority of Colombians were poor. These Colombians comprised of mixed race.
National Liberation Army
The U.S. launched PLAN COLOMBIA to counter drug trafficking.

Thousands of Colombian farmers protests throughout the country, pleading the government to materialize on reforms agreed last August.

Free trade agreements with the U.S. and E.U. had flooded the market with prices that farmers were unable to match. They even complained of high fuel and production prices.

The government had signed reforms to ease tensions. However, the farmers believe that they have failed to implemment measures that reduce debt and control the price of fertilizers.
- Drug cartel is a criminal organization developed with the primary purpose of promoting and controlling drug trafficking operations. They range from loosely managed agreements among various drug traffickers to formalized commercial enterprises. The term was applied when the largest trafficking organizations reached an agreement to coordinate the production and distribution of cocaine. Since that agreement was broken up, drug cartels are no longer actually cartels, but the term stuck and it is now popularly used to refer to any criminal narcotics related organizations.
“Negotiators in Havana, Cuba have gotten significantly further than ever before. It is not unreasonable to expect an accord by the end of 2014.”
3- Step Process
3. Making sure the deals agreed upon are implemented.
Peace talks in Cuba between the FARC and Colombian Government
1. Getting both sides on the table for negotiation.

2. Reaching a conclusive deal.
Stratum 1 : Lowest income.
Stratum 2 : Low-Middle class.
Stratum 3 : Middle class.
Stratum 4 : Upper middle class.
Stratum 5 : Upper class.
Stratum 6 : Wealthy. Only the 5% of Colombians fit this category.

Juan Manuel Santos
1. Implementing the commitments agreed upon at the table.

2. Demobilizing and reintegrating all ex-combatants

3. Getting a functioning government presence into territories long abandoned to illegal armed groups.
Full transcript