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Physics Sonar Assignment :)

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ali barack

on 18 March 2013

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Transcript of Physics Sonar Assignment :)

By:Ali.H Sonar has many uses below is a small list of some of its uses in everyday life:

-submarine and mine detection ( sea control, anti-submarine warfare, anti-surface warfare, transportation of personnel and cargo,landing special operation forces)

-depth detection- scientific purposes.

-commercial fishing in the US provided over 2 million jobs, and 185 billion dollars in sales in 2006 (NOAA,2006)

-diving safety and communication at sea TYPES OF SONAR Active Sonar The Importance of Sonar (throughout history) Nazi's vs Allies struggle for the sea.
-Allies make strategic win over Nazi's (Kriegsmarine) by successfully delivering supplies and materials to Britain by using sonar to detect and destroy German subs attempting to cut off supplies. The Battle of Atlantic lasted 69 months. General Information about Sonar -Acronym for sound navigation and ranging, used analogously with radar.
-An acoustic wave
- They give an indication of the distance and bearing a solid object, because sonar consists of pulses and sound waves transmitted in water. They are sent at ultrasonic frequencies (20- 100 kHz) They travel out and once they interact with a solid object they reflect back.
- Speed of sound in water varies with depth, temperature and salinity. These have to be taken into consideration for accurate observations and measurements.
-Sonar can also identify depth of the water. (bathymetry) SONAR Active sonar is when one point is both a receiver and a sender of a signal. It emits and receives a pulse. Passive Sonar Passive sonar does not emit its own signals, it rather just listens on its surroundings. USES OF SONAR Mathematics of Sonar SNR (decibels) = SL -2TL +TS - (NL - AG) Usage of sonar in the Arabian sea to protect oil routes from any disturbance. Our (humans) increased knowledge about lifestyle of dolphins, bats and their ability to detect objects in their environments German U-Boat under fire. Active sonar: Passive sonar: SNR (decibels) = SL -TL - (NL - AG) The major difference between the two equations is that for active sonar the sound waves, go to the target and come back so there is double transmission loss but passive sonar only goes one way so there isn't that loss for the echo (sound wave) coming back. There are many equations involved to determine different aspects/relationships between an object and another. These are the most common and simplest to use. Timeline of Sonar In the following years mentioned significant breakthroughs were made in the research of sonar:
-1822 Daniel Colladon

-1906 Lewis Nixon

-1915 Paul Langevin

-1918 United States and Britain Daniel Colladon Lewis Nixon Specific Examples of Natural or bio sonar Through research a lot has been learned about
animals around us that use sonar, as an essential
method and way of life, without sonar capabilities
the dolphin and bat for example would be extremely vulnerable and might not exist. JOBS Associated with Sonar There are countless amount of jobs associated with sonar, from military to biology purposes, and there are countless positions available for individuals that have experience in using,fixing, maintaining and evaluating sonar. Salaries can range from 60,000 - 200 000 +. Depending on level of experience and position. For example a submariner in the U.S navy has to be able to repair and maintain every piece of equipment in the submarine.
This is a very surface list due to the countless number of jobs associated with sonar. -Sonar technician
- Electronics Engineer
-Senior Sonar Engineer
-Capability Specialist
-Systems Engineer
-Computer Technician
- Future Technologies and Advancements in Sonar The most interesting advancement taking place is the use of equipment to render sonar obsolete
. Professor Nicholas Fang of the University of Illinois has developed an acoustic cloaking device that could make objects completely invisible to sonar. This is in its infancy stage, but hopefully in several years Professor Fang will develop this enough to be seen in the markets.
There are also many advancements made in the field of naval warfare, submarines are developing ways to hit targets from a farther range with even more precision. Finally in the field of biology sonar is being used to study how animals "see" without sound and only hear and perceive there targets and surroundings.
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