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Mass migration (history)

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anne chan

on 23 August 2015

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Transcript of Mass migration (history)

Focus: Mass Migration
Reasons for Mass Migration:
1) The Industrial Revolution
2) The End of Slave Trade
3) The Opening of the Suez Canal
Answering the Inquiry Question
Why did people come to colonial Singapore before WWII?
Push & Pull Factors
Push Factor
: conditions which motivated people to leave their homeland.
The Push Factors:
1) shortage of jobs caused by rapid population growth

2) poverty and starvation

3) unrest and instability in homeland
who were the immigrants & where did they come from?
Europe
: Britain, Portugal and Germany
Arabia
: Arabs
China
: Hokkiens, Teochews, Cantonese, Hakkas and Hainanese
India and Ceylon
: South Indian Tamils, Tamils and Sinhalese from Ceylon, Punjabis and Sikhs, Bengalis, Gujeratis and Parsees
Malay Archipelago
: Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, the Riau Lingga Archipelago, Javanese, Boyanese and Bugis

mass migration (history)
1) who were the immigrants and where did they come from?
2) why did they come to Singapore in the 19th and early 20th centuries?
Migration
refers to the physical movement of large groups of people, knows as migrants, over long distances
The Industrial Revolution:
1) the 18th and 19th centuries was a time of major improvements of technology and mass production
This resulted in the creation of new industries and production of more goods. The increased production led to an increase of raw materials such as tin, rubber and coal.
Since these raw materials were not found in Europe, a huge wave of migration from Europe to other parts of the world took place.
The Industrial Revolution
The invention of steam technology led to vast improvements in seafaring technology.
With the development of steam engines, the Europeans were able to travel further and faster.
More people traveled by steamships as it was cheaper.
As a result, mass migration in the 19th century became possible.
The End of Slave Trade
This resulted in the shortage of cheap labour in Europe and European Colonies.
Countries such as Britain had to look for other sources of cheap labour to ensure that their economic activities would continue.
As a result, the allowed and encouraged the unrestricted immigration of people from other countries to live and work in their colonies.
The Opening of the Suez Canal
Before 1869, ships travelling between Europe and Asia had to take a very long route around the Cape of Good Hope in Southern Africa.
In 1869, a French Engineer, Ferdinand de Lesseps drew up plans to shorten this route by constructing a long canal, the Suez Canal to link the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea.
The shorter distance and duration of travel made it cheaper and easier for people from Europe to go and return from SG and other parts of Asia.

For example, a journey from London to Singapore used to take 120 days but using the Suez Canal, this was shortened to 50 days.
> answers must be presented as
reasons
>
conditions
that
attracted
people to SG
>
conditions
that made people
leave
their homeland
> when the British ruled SG
> time period: 1819 to 1939
>
who
were these people?
Pull Factors
: conditions which attracted people to come to a new place
Poverty and Starvation
Java:
> caused by overpopulation
> caused by the cultivation system (farmers had to grow crops for the Dutch too
Evidence: shortage of rice- famines and epidemics in the 1840s & 1850s
China:
> caused by overpopulation

> caused by insufficient farmland
Evidence: people living in Fujian and Guangdong lived in mountainous regions (limited land for growing crops
India:
> caused by natural disasters
> caused by failure of Monsoon in bringing enough rain which led to drought, causing the harvest to fail, creating a famine
> caused by ineffective agricultural policies
Evidence: Great Famine (1876-1878)
Unrest and Instability
Java:
Evidence: frequent wars among various local rulers
Evidence: anti-Dutch wars (e.g the Java War, 1825-1830 in Central
> caused by wars and rebellions
China:
Evidence: rebellions against the Qing Dynasty (Manchu Dynasty) e.g the Taiping Rebellion (1850-1864)
Evidence: wars between rival clans
Evidence: Civil Wars between different political parties (e.g between the Communist Red Army and the Guomindang in the 1930s
India:
Evidence: rebellions by local rulers against British rule (e.g Indian Rebellion 1857)
> led to hardship and suffering to the Indian people
Shortage of jobs and opportunities
> caused by wars and rebellions
(Java and China): caused by overpopulation
(India): caused by natural disasters and drought

The Pull Factors
1) better trade and buisiness opportunities

2) better job prospects
Explanations:
Singapore's status as a free port
Singapore's free immigration policy
Singapore's status as a free port
a. enabled merchants to do business and make more profits in Sinagpore compared to other ports in the region

b. traders were able to call at the port without paying custom duties and taxes
Singapore's free immigration policy
a. immmigrants could come and go as they pleased without having to pay for immigrant passes

b. this made it easier for poorer immigrants

c. merchants and traders could come as regularly as they liked to conduct business and trade
Evidence:
Bugis traders
Arab traders
Bugis traders:
Dutch controlled the ports and trade routes in the East Indies

and imposed taxes on the traders
This affected the spice trade and profit margins of the Bugis
As a result, many were attracted to Singapore and several hundred traders and their families had moved to Singapore by the beginning of the 20th century
Arab traders:
Many traders were originally from Hadhramaut in Southern Arabia
Syed Omar bin Ali Aljunied and Syed Mohammed bin Harun Aljunied were among the first to arrive
Numerous others followed to escape heavy cuntom duties (taxes) and another wave followed in the 19th century
Better Job Prspects:
Singapore was a
new and growing settlement with increasing number of immigrants
As such, the British needed to
develop infrastructure to support the increase in activities
at the port
Singapore was a growing and prosperous trading port and the
busy harbour required many workers
Singapore was a new and growing settlement with increasing number of immigrants
workers were needed to:
1) clear jumgles for settlements to house the incoming immmigrants

2) construct roads and buildings as the town of Singapore continued to exoand and grow

3) sell food and provide the people living here with services, such as pulling rickshaws and operating horse carriages
The British needed to develop infrastructure to support the increase in activities at the port
workers were needed to:
1)
build a new harbour to accomodate the steamships
arriving at Singapore in the early 20th C

2)
clear the jungles
for settlements to house incoming immigrants

3)
construct roads and buildings
as the town of Singapore continued to expand and grow
Singapore was a growing and prospering trading port and it required many workers as it was busy
workers were needed to:
1)
refuel and restock
the food and water supplies for the steamship that came to Singapore from other countries

2)
repair ships

3)
unload
from ships that arrived or
load goods
into ships that were preparing to sail off
Singapore was an attractive option because:
1) poorer immigrants could receive higher wages compared to what they received back home

2) many planned to return home after earning money as the free immigration policy allowed them to come and go freely
Evidence:
1) many Javanese and Baweanese were also attracted to Singapore as they could write and print their news articles here without being restricted by Dutch laws

2) in the 1920s, wages for unskilled workers were very low, especially for work in sugarcane plantations in Java and Bawean

3) many Javanese and Baweanese came to work as plantation labourers, drivers, general traders and sailors
Full transcript