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Rock Cycle

Rock cycle process, plus three types of rock
by

David Barrett

on 4 February 2016

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Transcript of Rock Cycle

Rocks undergo temperature variations that cause them to turn from solid to liquid
Melting
Can it still be considered a rock now that it is magma or lava?

Why or why not?
Magma or Lava
http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=endscreen&NR=1&v=egEGaBXG3Kg
lava or magma cools and hardens
Cooling and Hardening
Forms when magma cools and hardens
AKA Crystallization
Igneous rock is classified by texture
Texture is determined by how it cools
Igneous Rock
Weathering - the physical or chemical breaking down of rock

Erosion - Carrying the weathered rock away

What type of energy drives weathering and erosion?
Weathering and Erosion
Two types of weathering:
Mechanical weathering—physical forces break rock into smaller pieces without changing the rock’s composition








3 Causes of Mechanical Weathering:
Frost Wedging
Unloading
Biological Activity
Mechanical Weathering
Chemical weathering— transformation of rock into one or more new compounds
Chemical Weathering
Water is the most important agent of chemical weathering.
Mixes with carbon dioxide in air to form weak carbonic acid (rain water)
Acid rain has a stronger effect
Reacts with many common minerals, breaking them down
Rock composition—granite is resistant; marble weathers easily

Climate—temperature and moisture have a strong affect on freeze-thaw cycles, vegetation, etc.
Rate of weathering is affected by rock composition and climate
Fragments of rock. Classified according to size
Sediments
Compaction and Cementation
Sedimentary Rock
or hydrothermal solutions
Extreme Heat and Pressure
Metamorphic Rock
Soil—part of the regolith that supports plant life
Regolith—layer of rock and mineral fragments
4 components of soil
mineral matter
humus – decayed organic matter
air
water
The % of clay, silt, and sand.
Soil texture is based on particle size
Texture strongly influences a soil’s ability to retain water and support plant life.
Sandy soil – drains very quickly
Silty hard for roots to penetrate soil
Loam – sand, silt & clay in roughly equal amount. Holds plenty of moisture & drains and aerates well
Soil profile—vertical column of soil which shows all soil layers
A horizon—topsoil; mostly organic matter, insects, and microorganisms
B horizon—subsoil; contains fine clay particles washed out of the A horizon
C horizon—partially weathered parent material
Soil horizons—layers of soil with identifiable characteristics
Rates of soil erosion are affected by human activities that remove vegetation.
Mass movement—the transfer of rock and soil down-slope due to gravity
Most landforms are formed by a combination of weathering and mass movements
Mass Movements
Water—saturates surface materials by heavy rain or rapid snow melt; lubricates particles so they move easier
Oversteepened slopes—a slope remains stable only up to 25-40 based on particle type & size
Removal of vegetation—plants stabilize slopes because roots bind soil w/o plants soil moves easily
Earthquakes—can dislodge huge amounts of rock and unconsolidated material
4 Triggers of Mass Movements:
Rockslide—a block of rock and loose material moves suddenly along a flat, inclined surface; common in high mountain areas; fastest moving mass movement (200 km/hr)
Rockfall—rocks freefall through air
Types of Mass Movements:
Mudflow—moves quickly
Slump—downward movement of material on a curved surface; does not move fast or far

Flow—movement of material containing a large amount of water; moves like a thick liquid (think cake mix)

Earthflow—moves slowly
Types of Mass Movements:
Creep—caused by alternating expansion slowest mass movement (1mm-3cm/yr); cannot be directly observed
Types of Mass Movements:
Extrusive:
Form on the surface
Cools at a fast rate
Grain size is small
AKA: Volcanic
Intrusive:
Form beneath the surface
Cools at a slow rate
Grain size is large
AKA: Plutonic
Igneous Rock
Formation
GRANITE

Felsic Magma
High Silica Content
Intrusive: Granite
Extrusive: Rhyolite
DIORITE

Felsic & Mafic Magma
(Intermedite)
Varied Silica Content
Intrusive: Diorite
Extrusive: Andesite
BASALT

Mafic Magma
Low Silica Content
Intrusive: Gabbro
Extrusive: Basalt
Three Families of Igneous Rocks
Course grained
Fine grained
Glassy
Porphyritic
Classification of Igneous Rocks: Texture
Course grained- large crystals due to slow cooling
Fine grained- small interlocking grains due to rapid cooling
Glassy – cools too fast for crystals to form
Porphyritic – large crystals surrounded by fine grains
Weight from overlying rock increases as more
and more layers get DEPOSITED on top.
more weight = more tightly compacted
Compaction—rock fragments (sediments) are packed together by weight of overlying material.

Cementation—dissolved minerals fill in gaps & cement rock fragments together
Sedimentary Rock
Formation
Regional- large-scale metamorphism usually caused by plate movements. Tremendous heat & pressure change rocks over 100’s of Km
Contact- magma changes rock near or touching it by intense heat

Contact VS. Regional Metamorphism
Metamorphism- changing a rock by heat, pressure, or chemical processes.
Metamorphic Rock
Foliated Rock
Pressure flattens minerals in rocks giving a layered or banded appearance
Minerals of different densities group together and form bands
EX. Gneiss, Slate  Schist
Metamorphic Rock
MARBLE
Non- foliated Rock
No visible bands
EX. Quartzite
Metamorphic Rock
Fragments (sediments) cemented into rock

Conglomerate- gravel sized fragments deposited in a high velocity environment
EX: Flood or dam break
Classification of Sedimentary Rocks:
Clastic
Sand stone- sand sized fragments deposited in a medium velocity environment
EX: River or Beach


Siltstone – silt sized particles deposited in a low velocity environment
EX: Slow river or creek; Possibly a lake
Classification of Sedimentary Rocks:
Clastic
Shale – small silt and clay sized particles deposited in still or extremely low velocity environment
EX: Lake bottom or Sea floor
Classification of Sedimentary Rocks:
Clastic
Shale – small silt and clay sized particles deposited in still or extremely low velocity environment
EX: Lake bottom or Sea floor
Classification of Sedimentary Rocks:
Clastic
Evaporites- minerals formed in this way EX. Gypsum or Halite
Classification of Sedimentary Rocks:
Chemical and Biochemical
Rock forms when minerals dissolved in water come out of solution due to precipitation or the evaporation of water EX: Limestone
Classification of Sedimentary Rocks:
Chemical and Biochemical
Rock forms when minerals dissolved in water come out of solution due to precipitation or the evaporation of water EX: Limestone
Classification of Sedimentary Rocks:
Chemical and Biochemical
Rock formed from the remains of living things EX. Coal, chalk
Organic Sedimentary Rock
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VMJiibdVYjE
THE ROCK CYCLE
Full transcript