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Development Milestones of Preschoolers

By Sophia Sajid

Sophia Sajid

on 21 February 2013

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Transcript of Development Milestones of Preschoolers

Developmental Milestones Cognitive Milestones A developmental milestone is an ability that is achieved by most children by a certain age. Developmental milestones can involve physical, social, emotional, cognitive and communication skills such as walking, sharing with others, expressing emotions, recognizing familiar sounds and talking. Cognitive Development Milestones of Preschoolers Physical milestones involve both large-motor skills and fine-motor skills. The large-motor skills are usually the first to develop and include sitting up, standing, crawling and walking. Fine-motor skills involve precise movements such as grasping a spoon, holding a crayon, drawing shapes and picking up small objects. Physical Milestones Social and emotional milestones are centered on children gaining a better understanding of their own emotions and the emotions of others. These milestones also involve learning how to interact and play with other people. Social-Emotional Milestones Social-Emotional Development Physical Development Language Development DEVELOPMENTAL MILESTONES OF PRESCHOOLERS Important Milestones

•Climbs well
•Walks up and down stairs, alternating feet (one foot per stair step)
•Kicks ball Runs easily
•Pedals tricycle
•Bends over easily without falling By the End of Three Years Old By The End Of Four years Old •Hops and stands on one foot up to five seconds
•Goes upstairs and downstairs without support
•Kicks ball forward
•Throws ball overhand
•Catches bounced ball most of the time
•Moves forward and backward with agility By The End Of Five Years Old •Can count 10 or more objects
•Correctly names at least four colors
•Better understands the concept of time
•Knows about things used every day in the home (money, food, appliances) Increasing Levels of Activity, Endurance, and Variation in Types of Activity and Skill:- Involving children in planning and decision-making increases their active involvement in play.

Gross motor skill:- When adults participate, children are motivated to continue to practise throwing and increasing their co-ordination.

Fine Motor Skills:- Playfully joining children in their self-initiated music activity supports their auditory explorations and the development of their emerging musical skills. Role Of Early Childhood Educator Cognitive milestones are centered on a child's ability to think, learn and solve problems. An infant learning how to respond to facial expressions and a preschooler learning the alphabet are both examples of cognitive milestones. By the end of 3 years (36 months):

•Makes mechanical toys work
•Matches an object in her hand or room to a picture in a book
•Plays make-believe with dolls, animals, and people
•Sorts objects by shape and color
•Completes puzzles with three or four pieces
•Understands concept of "two" By the end of 4 years (48 months):

•Correctly names some colors
•Understands the concept of counting and may know a few numbers
•Tries to solve problems from a single point of view
•Begins to have a clearer sense of time
•Follows three-part commands
•Recalls parts of a story
•Understands the concepts of "same" and "different"
•Engages in fantasy play
By the end of 5 years (60 months):

•Can count 10 or more objects
•Correctly names at least four colors
•Better understands the concept of time
•Knows about things used every day in the home (money, food, appliances) •Provides opportunities for children to learn through hands-on experience
•Provides children the time and space to manipulate, explore, and experiment
•Provides opportunities for children to learn about things outside their immediate experience
•Allows children to try things in their own ways, to make mistakes, and to try again
•Provides children with a variety of experiences with plants and animals
•Provides children with opportunities to learn about counting, measuring, and arranging items into sets by size and shape
•Introduces familiar themes, such as transportation, families, weather, and building things Role of Early ChildHood Educator Social and Emotional Milestone
By the end of 3 years (36 months): Social

•Imitates adults and playmates
•Spontaneously shows affection for familiar playmates
•Can take turns in games
•Understands concept of "mine" and "his/hers" Social Milestones: 3 to 5 By the end of 4 years (48 months):

•Interested in new experiences
•Cooperates with other children
•Plays "Mom" or "Dad"
•Increasingly inventive in fantasy play
•Dresses and undresses
•Negotiates solutions to conflicts
•More independent By the end of 5 years (60 months)
•Wants to please friends
•Wants to be like her friends
•More likely to agree to rules
•Likes to sing, dance, and act
•Shows more independence and may even visit a next-door neighbor by herself Emotional Milestones: 3 to 5 By the End of 3 years (36 months)

•Expresses affection openly
•Expresses a wide range of emotions
•By 3, separates easily from parents
•Objects to major changes in routine By the End of 4 years (48 months)

•Imagines that many unfamiliar images may be "monsters"
•Views self as a whole person involving body, mind, and feelings
•Often cannot tell the difference between fantasy and reality
By the End of 5 years old (56 months)

•Aware of gender
•Able to distinguish fantasy from reality
•Sometimes demanding, sometimes eagerly cooperative Self concept & self concept :- See children as competent..
Reminding children of past successes helps them see themselves as competent

Conflict solving:- When adults support children to think instead of solving the problem for them, children learn how to solve problems.

Peer group : Create a clearly defined entrance to learning centres.
When adults admire how individuals make different contributions to a group effort, children learn how
different strengths work together and are respected.

Empathy:- When a child is the aggressor, adults must act to stop the behaviour and help that child to see the other’s perspective. Role Of Early Childhood Educator Language Milestone Communication milestones involve both language and nonverbal communication. A one-year old learning how to say his first words and a five year old learning some of the basic rules of grammar are examples of important communication milestones.
By the end of 3 years (36 months):
•Follows a two- or three-part command
•Recognizes and identifies almost all common objects and pictures
•Understands most sentences
•Understands placement in space ("on," "in," "under")
•Uses 4- to 5-word sentences
•Can say name, age, and sex
•Uses pronouns (I, you, me, we, they) and some plurals (cars, dogs, cats)
•Strangers can understand most of her words By the end of 4 years (48 months):
•Has mastered some basic rules of grammar
•Speaks in sentences of five to six words
•Speaks clearly enough for strangers to understand
•Tells stories By the end of 5 years (60 months):
•Recalls part of a story
•Speaks sentences of more than five words
•Uses future tense
•Tells longer stories
•Says name and address Role of an Early Childhood Educator Learn a few words of the home language (for example, simple greetings, names of common objects and family members) of the children in your program. Use these words in conversation.

A child’s engagement increases in inclusive environments where her native language and culture are valued and she is encouraged to retain her home language.
Conversing with Peers and Adults:- Asking children to introduce a family member in a group setting or introduce a household item requires them to adjust their conversation to a group of peers and to family members.
Listening to Others:- Wait for children to respond, sit at the children’s level and pay attention to them as they talk.
Enjoying Literacy:- When reading is experienced with enjoyment, learning is reinforced and children are motivated to continue to expand their involvement in literacy
Retelling Stories:- When adults listen to a child retelling a story, they learn what the child understands and what is important to her. References:
1. Reviewed by, Mannheim, J. K., (2010), Preschooler development – Overview: Retrieved from URL
2. Mayo Clinic Staff, (2010), Child development chart: Preschool milestones: Retrieved from URL
3. Cherry, K. , (2013), What Is a Developmental Milestone?: Retrieved from URL

4. Stanberry, K. , (n . d), Developmental Milestones in Preschoolers: Is Your Child on Track?: Retrieved from URL http://www.education.com/

5 Malley, C. , (1991), Preschooler development (Family Day Care Facts series). Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts. Retrieved from URL http://www.nncc.org/Child.Dev/presch.dev.html
6. Ontario. Ministry of Children and Youth Services. Best Start Expert Panel on Early Learning. (2007). Early learning for every child today: A framework for Ontario early childhood settings. Toronto: Ministry of Children and Youth Services.
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