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Native American Rights
Transcript of Native American Rights
By Ellis Hayden Devin Important Court Cases and Laws: Overview of Native American Rights Indian Civil Rights Act 1968 In 1968, Native Americans got many
civil rights due to the Indian Civil
Rights Act of 1968. This granted them
many rights such as freedom of speech,
protection of search and seizure, and the
right to a jury trial. By this time, African
Americans had gotten their civil rights,
and it have the Native Americans a chance to also gain their civil rights. Although it was not very easy for them. They were not discriminated against as much as the African Americans, but they were not just handed their rights. Native Americans fought and fought until they finally obtained their civil rights, such as the ones listed above. Cast Of Characters/ Major Organizations NARF Native American Rights Fund
Oldest and largest firm defending tribes
Five concentrated areas:
Preservation of tribal existence
Protection of tribal natural resources
Promotion of Native American human rights
Accountability of governments to Native Americans
Development of Indian law and educating the public about indian right, laws and issues. NEIA National Indian Education Association
Formed in 1969 to fight unequal education
Only national non-profit organization exclusive to Native American Education Issues
Support traditional language and cultures in the classroom
Encourage Tribal and Native control of educational institutions
Increase information relevant to Native students Dennis Banks Native American leader, teacher, lecturer, activist and author. Co founded the American Indian Movement
Led the (AIM) Cast Of Characters/ Major Organizations Cont. American Indian Movement Founded in 1968 in Minneapolis, Minnesota
Founders were Dennis Banks, George Mitchell, Herb Powless, Clyde Bellecourt, Harold Goodsky, Eddie Benon-Banai.
Formed to address Native American issues in Minneapolis which included...
Attracted Members around the nation
Led "trail of Broken Treaties" protest in Washington D.C. in OCtober 1971
In 1973 it led a 71 day armed standoff with federal forces and Wounded Knee, South Dakota. Leonard Peltier Native American Activist
Accused of murdering two FBI agents at pine Ridge on June 26, 1975.
He said he was innocent
Two life sentences
Many people defended him and demanded for his release.
Behind bars he has...
Set up annual gift drives for the children of Pine Ridge
Fund raisers for shelters
Won Human rights awards
LPDOC created in his honor
Leonard Peltier Defense Offense Committee
It is the hub of communication between him and his programs and supporters Also called the Indian Bill of Rights
Supported 9 issues:
Right to free speech, press, assembly
Protection from unnecessary search and seizure
Right of a criminal defendant to a speedy trial
Right to hire an attorney
Protection from self-incrimination
Protection from cruel and unusual punishment, unreasonable bail, and incarceration that exceeds a year.
Protection from ex post facto laws or double jeopardy.
Right to a jury trial.
Right to due process and equal protection under the law. Voting Rights Act 1965 Put end to individual states being able to decide if Native Americans can vote or not.
The federal government made sure that all Native Americans were able to vote. Laws and Acts Indian Self-Determination
and Education Assistance Act Gave tribes much greater opportunity to apply federal programs that helped Native Americans.
These federal programs were previously created by the Bureau of Indian Affairs Religious Freedom Act (1978)
Indian Mineral Development Act (1982)
Indian Gaming Regulatory Act (1988)
Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (1990)
Indian Self-Governance Act (1994) Native American Civil Rights 1970-Present Introduction Court Cases Inyo County, CA, et al. v. Paiute-Shoshone Indians of the Bishop Community (2003) In 1972, the Indian Education Act created special bilingual programs for native american students in school so they would be able to get a better education. By doing this, it also created an office of Indian Education in the US Department of education. Today, the goal of the Office of Indian Education is to support local educational agencies, and post-secondary institutions.
In 1990, the Native American Languages Act was passed to allow all native americans to use their own languages. Their language use tried to be eradicated, but this act protected it. Dred Scott vs. Sandford (1856) Elk vs. Wilkins (1884) Citizenship is limited to white people who were born in the U.S. and white people who have migrate to the counrty and naturalized. A native American must seperate from his or her tribe and be accepted into the U.S. to be considered a citizen. After Native Americans were forced off their land and forced to walk to a new location and having all their rights stripped away it was apparent that change needed to happen. Because they were forced to specific schools and areas and did not receive equal opportunities, they protested and campaigned for their civil rights. Oliphant v. Suquamish Indian Tribe (1978) Tribes did not have jurisdiction over non-Indians living on reservations. This photo is of a teacher and a student that are both native americans and it was taken in a school because the native americans were able to get a seperate education with their language so they could get a better education. This is the logo of the Native American Rights Fund This is the Flag of the American Indian Movement This is a picture of Leonard Peltier An Indian tribe does not qualify as a person who can sue in an action asserting sovereign immunity from state court processes arising from a county investigation into alleged off-reservation crimes. Worchester vs. Georgia (1832) Georgia could not impose laws in Cherokee territory, only the national government could have authority in Native American affairs.
Led to President Andrew Jackson forcing the Cherokee's out of Georgia and into Indian Territory (Oklahoma). The Future Current Issues:
Bad conditions of reservations
Lack of Education
Widespread drug abuse and alcoholism on reservations, as well as other social challenges
Changing racist mascot names of United States sports teams. The future of Native American civil rights and Native American equality in the United States does not look too bright. Native Americans have real problems on their reservations, but they do not try to seek change or help. Outside the reservations, there is still an underlying rascism in the country against Native Americans. We still have professional sports teams called the Redskins, the Indians, the Chiefs, the Braves, and the Blackhawks. We also have hundreds of college and high school that have Indians for their mascots. There has been a push for these to be changed, but many still exist. This picture below is showing the Native Americans marching, in protest if their civil rights. They did not gain their civil rights until 1968, after the African Americans gained theirs. The logo of Major League Baseball's Cleveland Indians. The logo of the National Football League's Washington Redskins An example of the widespred alcoholism on Indian reservations. Lyndon B. Johnson signing the Indian Civil Rights Act of 1968.