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Genetics Notes

Notes for the Genetics Unit Phenotype, Genotype Dominant, Recessive Sex-linked Punnett Pedigree

Michelle Munn

on 15 August 2015

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Transcript of Genetics Notes

Outline of Indicator:
Sex-linked (recessive seen more often)
sex vs. autosomal chromo
Punnett Square: use to predict cross results
Pedigrees: use to interpret patterns of inheritance
We're going to talk about how your genes are expressed. Take notes on your Genetics Notes Handout.
Because of Meiosis: You have 2 copies of all your genes. 1 from Mom and 1 from Dad. Sometimes these are called alleles.
Dominant--when one gene prevents the expression of its allele
ex. brown eyes
Recessive--the gene not expressed if there is a dominant gene
ex. blue or green eyes
Phenotype--the trait that you observe
Genotype--the actual genetic makeup
Punnett Square--determine the probable offspring from a set of parents
So, we're going to use symbols to represent this: B for Brown eyes and b for blue. (The dominant trait is uppercase).
If you have brown eyes your genotype could be ___ or ___
BB or Bb
If you have blue eyes what is your genotype?
Homozygous--trait whose alleles are identical yy or RR.
Heterozygous--trait whose alleles are different Bb
Key: B = brown eyes
b = blue eyes

Cross of Bb x Bb (brown x brown)
The A allele codes for antigen “A”
The B allele codes for antigen “B”
The O allele codes for no antigen and is recessive to A and B

If A and B occur together, both “A” and “B” antigens will be expressed equally on your red blood cells. When both traits are expressed equally its called CO-DOMINANCE.

Blood type is determined by the genes you inherited from your parents. However, unlike some traits we have been studying, there are three alleles for the gene for blood type: A, B, and O.

The blood type gene codes for a marker protein on the surface of your red blood cells. If you get a transfusion of the wrong kind you body will attack it.
All X chromosomes have locations for the genes for hemophilia, as well as color-blindness and other sex-linked traits. Therefore, we still use the system of letters, such as E and e, to represent forms of these genes as superscripts on the X chromosome. For example, the normal gene for blood clotting is X, and the defective recessive gene is X.

Because the gene is located on the X chromosome, females have two genes and males have one. Heterozygous females have one recessive copy of the gene, but do not have the disease. They are called carriers because they are able to pass the gene on to their offspring.
SEX LINKED TRAITS: Color blindness

Why are there more colorblind men than colorblind women? Certain traits are controlled by gene located on the sex chromosomes, usually the X chromosome. These traits are called SEX-LINKED TRAITS.

Color blindness is a recessive disorder caused by a mutation on the X chromosome. The dominant allele codes for normal color eyesight. The recessive allele codes for colorblindness
Drill (2-14)
1. TAGACG This is a portion of _____.
2. A cell with 20 chromo. divides and produces cells containing 10 chromo. What's this process called?
3. You have 20% T, How much C do you have?
Karyotypes: the chromosomes are arranged in pairs and by size (you can see their centromeres and bands). They are used to determine if the person is normal (23 pairs) or has extra chromosomes.
Turner Syndrome: they have one X chromosome, so they only have 45 total. They are infertile, have normal intelligence, short, and have webbed necks
Down Syndrome: 3 copies of chromosome 21 and that makes 47 total chromosomes. They have distinct facial features, some degree of mental retardation, and short stature.
Klinefelter's Syndrome: A person has XXY (1 in 500 have XXY but 1 in 1000 have KS). They are physically male, infertile with small testes, and may have enlarged breasts.
Drill 2-16
In addition to dominant and recessive traits there are also traits that are controlled by genes that are not entirely dominant because the gene does not work very well. The alleles for these traits are both expressed somewhat, often resulting in a blend of the dominant and recessive phenotypes. This is called INCOMPLETE DOMINANCE.

Snapdragons can have a R allele for red or r for white. RR has red phenotype and rr is white, but Rr is PINK!
1. You have decided to breed a RED and WHITE flower. (a) Draw a Punnett square of the cross and (b) what are the genotypes and phenotypes of the offspring.

2. Then, you cross 2 pink flowers. (a) Draw a Punnett square for this cross. (b) What is the phenotype ratio?
5.B is dominant for brown eyes and b is recessive for blue. I cross parents that are Bb x Bb.
a)How would you describe the parents phenotype? ____________

b)The parents are heterozygous / homozygous and dominant / recessive

c)Draw the Punnett square of the cross

d)What is the phenotype of the bottom right square? ______________

e)What is the genotypic ratio of this cross? _______________
11.What is the technology called that modifies DNA to take new genes from other organisms? [ex. In Jurassic Park they added frog DNA to the missing holes in their Dino DNA]

12.Down syndrome is caused by having an extra 21st chromosome. In a karyotype, how many chromosomes would each cell have?

13.What is cloning? What is a common example of a clone?
21.Beginning with DNA, describe the process that forms a protein [you MUST include the forms of RNA and organelles]
1.If I'm looking at a segment of nucleotides I can figure out if its DNA or RNA because they are different in what 2 ways?
DNA has a T!!!
2.What is meiosis?
Makes sex cells with half the number of chromosomes. Like a cell that started with 46 and ends with 23
Brown Eyes!
Blue Eyes!
Punnett Squares are...
Probable offspring from parents
6. A girl is colorblind. What gene did her father give her. So what's her dad's phenotype?
Dad gave: X
Dad is X Y so he's colorblind
8.Your DNA has 37% G. How much T does it have?
C=37%, so
A=13% and T=13%
9.To create you, your mom's egg with 23 chromosomes had to be fertilized by your dad's sperm that had 23 chromosomes resulting in a _________ with _______ chromosomes. Are you Haploid or Diploid? [circle one]
Recombinant DNA! mixing genes into other organisms
Making identical copies or identical TWINS!
14.Arrange these terms to show the steps of the expression of a trait: trait, gene, protein. Explain why you arranged them this way.
15.A Baby has blood type 0, but who is the father?
a)Circle all the possible genotypes that could be the father:
AB AA Ao BB Bo oo
b)What are all the possible phenotypes that the father could have:
_______ ________ ________
Both parents need a recessive 0!
16.I collect caterpillars from a grey moth and a black moth. Grey is dominant (G) to black (g). The moths that grew out of the caterpillars were 22 grey and 24 black.
a)What is the most likely genotype for the parent moths?

b)Draw a Punnett Square to confirm your answer.
Gg x gg with give 50% of each
18.In your cell the DNA unzipped and made RNA. What is this process called?
It's tranSCRIPTION: which is like writing down what someone says
20.What does crossing over do in Meiosis?
Makes gametes with varied traits.
22.A normal protein is coded from CGUCTT and non-functioning protein is coded from CGUCAT. Describe how a change in the DNA could result in a change in the protein.
Transcription happens first in the nucleus and it makes mRNA from DNA
Translation happens second at the ribosome where the mRNA codes for a protein
It's a Substitution Mutation

The CTT will code for a different amino acid, which will make a different protein. This protein doesn't work :(
Your Traits!
Day 1: DNA Intro
Group Drill: Analyze yourself for the traits below. Raise your hand if you have each trait.
1. Tongue Rolling 9. Bent little fingers
2. Widow's Peak 10. Chin cleft
3. Hitchhiker's thumb 11. Shorter big toe
4. Free earlobe 12. Ear points
5.Curly Hair 13. Brown eyes
6. Hair on middle joints of fingers
7. Arm folding: fold your arms across your chest. Is the left on top
8. Hand clasping: left over right thumb
Organism Organ Organ Tissue
Nucleus Cell
-Threadlike and are made of genes
Humans have 46
Segment of DNA that codes for a particle protein, which codes for a trait
-Chemical that chromosomes & genes are made of and forms a double helix
controls protein production in the cell
Building block of DNA in repeating strands of nucleotides
Deoxyribose sugar:
sides of the DNA ladder
Phosphate Group:
Sides of the ladder
Nitrogen Bases-
rungs of the DNA ladder
Base Pairs
Base Pairs
RNA: Used in protein production and made of nucleotides
BUT: RNA has ribose sugar instead of deoxyribose and Uracil instead of T
Next we are going to work on the guided coloring! You will read the reading which will give you instructions about what to color.
HW: Complete the questions and coloring
Exit Ticket: Write your answers on the top right side of your paper!
1. Look at the DNA sequence: GAA TTC GCA
What do the G and A represent in the DNA sequence?
A. sugars
B. amino acids
C. phosphates
D. nitrogen bases
2. Which of these are the repeating units that form a DNA molecule?
A. fatty acids
B. nucleotides
C. amino acids
D. chromosomes
3. Which of these is a nucleotide?
A. 1
B. 2
C. 3
D. 4

4. Which of these is a sugar?
A. 1
B. 2
C. 3
D. 4
Day 3: Karyotype
Drill grab a Downs Syndrome Reading and answer the 5 questions on your handout
Day 4 - DNA Replication
Drill: 1. What is abnormal about this karyotype?
2. What sex is this person?
How does DNA replicate?
Lesson 5 – Use the textbook to answer the questions about DNA replication.
We will watch an animation about it.
Steps of DNA Replication made easy!
DNA molecule separates into 2 strands

It make 2 new complementary strands following the rules of base pairing

Each original strand is a template for the new strand

At the end you have 2 complete double helices with 1 original strand and 1 new strand
Letter To Larry
Use a bright color marker to circle or highlight the mistakes in cousin Larry’s letter.
The number of mistakes in each paragraph are given at the beginning of the paragraph.
Number each mistake and write the correct word at the bottom.
Day 14 Mutations, sickle cell, gel
Day 9 Genetic Notes
Day 13 Pedigrees - Observation

1. Rate your skills from 1 to 10. (10 being awesome)
DNA Structure
Protein Synthesis
Genetics Terms
Making Punnett Squares
Analyzing Punnett Squares
Sex-Linked Traits
2. Circle the ONE topic that Ms. Boyea should review most
Students will
features of pedigrees in order to
how expressed traits are passed from parent to offspring.

Old Vocab: Heterozygous, Homozygous, Dominant, Recessive, Codominant, Sex-linked, Carrier
New Vocab: Pedigree
What do you think of when you hear the word Pedigree?
Day 11 Alternative Inheritance
Use the numbers on the pedigree when answering the questions.

Show how traits are passed on through a family tree. Females are circles and males are squares. Colored in circles or squares indicate expressed traits.




Go back to your 6 questions. Take ONE minute to correct your answers
1. Which people are the oldest? ____________
2. Which people are infected? ______________
3. Which people are male? ________________
4. How are 5 and 6 related? _______________
5. How are 3 and 6 related? _______________
6. How are 1 and 7 related? _______________
Switch to:
Introduction to a Pedigree
Color Blind Testing:
Work through Handout. Teacher-led then student indepedently solve
Exit Ticket
Create a Pedigree (may need to finish for HW)
Day 12 Snorks
1.What combination of alleles results in an organism showing the RECESSIVE trait?

2.Colorblindness is sex-linked. A couple has 15 kids. All have colorblind eyes. What is the MOST LIKELY genotype of the parents?

3.Colorblindness effects 7% of the CHS male population and .5% of the females. Describe how colorblindness is passed on. Circle two
Dominant trait / Recessive trait on the X chromosome / Y chromosome

4. Using this pedigree, how is this trait passed on? Circle one
Dominant Recessive Sex-Linked Recessive

5. Gregor Mendel figured out most of what we talked about genetics. He figured out how traits are passed to offspring. How does this apply to our unit?

6.A. How does a trait not evident in the parents, show up in the offspring?

B. What are the parents genotypes? Circle one:
Homozygous Recessive,
Homozygous Dominant, or Heterozygous

7. A egg has 20 chromosomes. How many chromosomes does it have when its fertilized?
8. If I cross a TT and tt, how will the offsprings phenotype will be similar / different to the parents

The genotype will be similar/different to the parents

9.A. Draw a Punnett square of a cross of RR x Rr. R is red. r is yellow

B. What is the PHENOTYPIC RATIO of the expected offspring of the cross? __ :__

10. Draw a punnett square for RR x Rr

The expected offspring
ratio is ___ homozygous dom : ___hetero : ___ homo recessive
12. Draw a punnett square for a normal female and colorblind male (its sex-linked)

B. What is the probability that any females will be carriers? ___

C. Can a normal boy be a carrier? __

D. If you are colorblind boy, who gave you the allele for colorblindness
Day 17 - Creative Review

1. Turn in late HW: Mutations or Make a Pedigree
2. Answer the 2 drill Questions

3. Take out your Genetics Unit Review (stapled in your packet)

Students will summarize a genetics concept IOT Explain how each genetics concept contributes to traits being inherited and passed from one generation from another.
--Assign Groups and Topics
--Give students 5 minutes to find the information they need to answer their questions.
1. Now that you've had some time to find your background information, we are going to add the creative element. Your job is to share the information with your classmates in an interesting, creative way.
2. You must find a creative way to convey your topic. You could:
a) Write a story, poem, song
b) Use the Flipcam and make a video
• Perform a rap or song
• Perform your story
• Host a talk show
c) Create a game for the class to participate in
d) Create a comic strip to explain your concept
3. You must have a visual to explain your presentation
4. You will be graded on content, creativity, quality and presentation.
5. You are going to get 25 minutes to prepare.
6. When your group leader has decided what your going to do, please send your supply person to get the guided outlines to help your move forward (like poem outlines)
Time Remaining:
End Time:
Gallery Walk: Presentation
You have 3 minutes at every station to see their project and write down 3 facts that the project taught you and you didn't know.
On your way back to your seats grab and exit ticket and pick up any scraps!
DNA replication does not occur again!
Red chromosomes split your chromatids in half and put one in each egg.
Blue chromosomes split your chromatids in half and put one in each sperm.
Meiosis II
Homologous chromosomes are separated.
How many chromosomes are in each new cell? ________________
Are we done yet?
Anaphase I and Telophase I
During metaphase I homologous chromosomes should pair up and simulate crossing-over by having ripping a portion of their chromosome off and exchanging it with their partner.
Metaphase I
Place the chromosomes onto the board under mitosis and draw a circle around them.
How many chromosomes are in the two daughter cells? ___________
Other than being all red in one cell and all blue in the other, are they identical to the original cell? ________________
Telophase and Cytokenesis
Prophase – attach “spindle fibers” to each sister chromatid (students hold onto the yarn/string).
Interphase: Students replicate the DNA by finding their copy chromosome
Now how many chromosomes are in the cell after replication? _________
Genetically Identical
Two Times
Word Bank
I: Use the word bank to fill in the blanks.
II: Use pages 275 – 278 to complete the fill-in- the- blank.
Day 2 - Meiosis
They are haploid – have the “half” number of chromosomes.
They contain 23 chromosomes (23 + 23 = 46)
The process that makes sex cells (gametes) is MEiosis. They make gaMEtes that came together and made ME.
So what happens to the sex cells (gametes)?
With 92 Chromosomes you would be a …..
What would happen if a sperm with 46 chromosomes and an egg with 46 chromosomes were to join?
What about sex cells??
1. A sample of DNA has 20% Adenine. What percent does it have of each of the nucleotide?
A = 20%
T = ?
C = ?
G = ?
*Hint A=T and C=G!
Today’s Drill Part 1
How does meiosis and fertilization explain why you are genetically similar but not identical to you parents and other offspring?
Analysis – What did you learn from lesson 3?
How many sex cells (gametes) did we make?
How many chromosomes are in each gamete?
Are any of them identical to the parent cells?
What happened??
Interphase and Prophase I
In numerical order (1,2,3,..) Pair up with your HOMOlogous chromosome.
How many chromosomes do we have? ______________
For replication, unfold your chromosome to represent the two sister chromatids.
After replication how many chromosomes are there?___________
Meiosis Act It Out!
Anaphase – get pulled in opposite directions by the centriole.
Metaphase – students line up in the center of the classroom
I need 10 volunteers.
4 of you are chromosomes right now in our cell. (2 from your mom and 2 from your dad)
6 will join be needed in a second
Acting Out Mitosis
Use the diagrams, the video and the “Act it Out” activities to fill in the rest of Lesson 3.
Comparing Mitosis and Meiosis
A sample of DNA has 37% Cytosine. What percent of the DNA is Thymine?
T = ?

*Hint A=T and C=G!
Today’s Drill Part 2
Students will act out meiosis in order to explain how gametes (sex – cells) are formed.
Today’s Agenda
Read Part III “Fertilization” and answer the questions associated with each paragraph.
What happens next?
You need two different colored pencils
Use page 278 to draw the stages and fill in the blanks.
If you are a boy you make sperm.
If you are a girl you make eggs.
Draw it
Day 2: Meiosis
Day 5-Protein Synthesis
All 4 genetic disorders have a problem with a protein malfunctioning!

Drill Part 2: How could we fix these disorders?

Where are the directions of how to make all proteins in your body?
What do you think are some possible treatments for patients with PKU?
Where do you get phenylalanine; how could we control the buildup of phenylalanine that causes damage to the brain and spinal cord?
Usually fatal by 3-4 years of age
Group Drill:
In your notes, write down 4 interesting or important facts from today’s Power Point and answer the questions at the end
Translation- mRNA is “read” 3 bases at a time (codon). tRNA molecules bring correct amino acids to form the growing protein chain.
mRNA leaves the nucleus.

mRNA attaches to ribosomes. Ribosomes use mRNA to direct the assembly of proteins.
Older patients still have restricted diets
Cannot consume fast food burgers, shakes or drink diet sodas
As an infant, the PKU patient consumes a specially prepared formula
Diagnosed through newborn screening
Appropriate therapy begun before damage
Good student who wants to be an engineer
IQ less than 20
Requires institutional care
Unable to metabolize the amino acid phenylalanine into the amino acid tyrosine
Phenylalanine builds up, damaging the central nervous system
Lacks hexosaminidase A, which is necessary to break down fats in the nervous system
Build-up of fats cause progressive damage to the central nervous system
Older daughter was born before MSUD screening and is severely handicapped
Younger daughter was born after MSUD screening and is developing normally after treatment
MSUD patients have an error in protein metabolism
in the NUCLEUS
People with sickle cell today can live into their 40’s, 50’s and beyond
No cure
Folic acid vitamins
Pain meds and antibiotic meds
Bone marrow transplants possible
Required newborn screening in most states in US
Affects millions of people
Abnormal hemoglobin (protein)
Chronic pain
Decreased resistance to infection

Live about 4 months
Function to carry oxygen to all parts of the body
Children appear normal at birth
Symptoms first appear around 4-8 months
Child becomes blind, develops seizures, and becomes less responsive to the environment
Tay Sachs
Sickle Cell Anemia
RNA polymerase binds to DNA to unwind and untwist the 2 strands.

Transcription- complimentary base pairing occurs and forms mRNA.
The ribosome forms a peptide bond between the amino acids.

The order of amino acids will determine the structure and function of a protein (polypeptide chain).
Objective: Students will describe protein synthesis IOT explain the process and summarize DNA
Your mother dresses you funny.
We are demented puppies.
DNA must be read for life.
DNA is the code of life.
Biology is the best subject.
Your father wears a dress.
Education is the door to the future.
9. Biology is all around you.
13. Read a little every day.
18. An old rubber band breaks when pulled.
You will work in small groups to complete a protein synthesis activity
Scribe- will go to nucleus and write it down on your paper. Remember to record the sentence number! Then Transcribe the DNA into mRNA.
Ribosome- You will be the ribosome. You will read the mRNA three letters at time. You will then tell tRNA team member to find a codon. As the ribosome, you will take the words given to you by the tRNA’s and put them together to create a sentence
Transfer RNA – You will act like tRNA by looking around the room for the codon given to you by the ribosome and find the word that matches.
When the ribosome is done, it leaves and we now have a strand of amino acids, a.k.a- a protein.
The ribosome reads the mRNA three letters (codon) at time and translates that into amino acids. The tRNA then delivers the amino acids to the ribosome. As the amino acids are delivered, ribosomes connect them to build a protein.
Transfer RNA or tRNA act as couriers to deliver the necessary amino acids to the ribosomes so our proteins can be synthesized.
MSDE L.G. = 3.3.3, 3.3.4
BCPS Indicator= 16
Independent Drill:
1. Turn in your Transcription & Translation Coloring
2. Take the Weekly HSA Questions
3. On the back of the slip: Explain transcription and translation in under 10 words each
The ribosomes read the mRNA codons and wait for tRNA to deliver the amino acids that code for them.
Our ribosomes act like a workbench that we can build our proteins on.
Transcription- is when DNA is copied into RNA
Scribes- were people that used to copy books before the invention of the printing press.
mRNA: _ _ _
mRNA: _ _ _
We can now translate the mRNA, each codon (three letters) equals an amino acid. We will later put the amino acids together to build a protein.
Group Drill: Turn this DNA into a strand of mRNA
GAG mutation GTG
Changing that one amino acid causes the hemoglobin protein to work incorrectly. The RBC’s then become sickle shape.
In sickle cell, one mutation changes a GAG to GTG. This causes it to code for valine instead of glutamic acid.
Some groups had sentences that didn’t make sense, because they transcribed one base pair incorrectly. By changing one base pair, you changed the word, and the sentence didn’t work.
Transcribe and translate the strand of DNA below.
Explain where each process takes place.
I’m a ribosome, I read the code in mRNA 3 letters a time.
Codon=three letters= amino acid
We learned earlier that DNA has a code that provides instructions on how to build proteins. These instructions are passed on to the mRNA
The code in mRNA is read 3 letters at a time. Each letter called a codon, codes for an amino acid. This step is called Translation.
RNA only has one strand
RNA can go anywhere in the cell
RNA is smaller
RNA has A,U, G, C.
DNA has two strands
DNA stays in nucleus
DNA is larger
DNA has A,T,G,C
We can make a copy of a portion of our DNA, called RNA. We can then take RNA to our job site to build our proteins. This RNA is called mRNA because it has a message in it.
DNA is our only copy of our genetic blueprint, so we need to keep it nice and safe in the nucleus.
Day 6 - Protein Sentences
Day 7 - Review - Graphic Organizers
Drill: HSA Protein Syn Questions
Central Dogma Review
Protein Synthesis Review
DNA SCA Review
Day 8 - Shortcycle Quiz
SCA Review from separate prezi
HW: How DNA gives you traits
Day 10: Human Inheritance
Drill: Answer the Practice HSA Questions in 3 min.
What's a phenotype?
What does heterozygous mean?
What the 3 vocab words on the board describe BB?
In this activity, you will observe several of your own traits. You will determine your
and predict your
for the traits. You will assume that each pair of the traits observed is the results of a single pair of genes.
After completing this lab, you will be able to explain how expressed traits are passed from parent to offspring, in order to analyze scenarios and likely offspring.
What you look like What your genes are
Flip to this chart!
1. Eye
Blue: bb (homozygous recessive)

Brown, Hazel and Green: BB or Bb (dominant)
2. Earlobes
Free Earlobes -->
dominant EE or Ee

Attached Earlobes -->
recessive ee
3. Tongue Rolling
Can roll Can't roll
RR or Rr rr
4. Hairline
Straight Widows Peak
ww WW or Ww
6. PTC taster
Some people can taste the chemical, phenylthiocarbamide, or PTC
Tasters: TT or Tt
Non-tasters: tt
6. Hair
Curly: CC or Cc
(includes wavy)
Straight: cc
7. Chin cleft
Cleft chin: CC or Cc

No Cleft: cc
8. Hair Color
Dark hair: DD or Dd
Light hair: dd
(natural color)
9. Polydactyly
Polydactyl: having an extra finger or toe is DD or Dd
5 Fingers/Toes: dd
10. Skin Freckles
Freckles: DD or Dd
No Freckles: dd
11. Cheek Dimples
Dimples: DD or Dd
No Dimple: dd
Predicting Offspring!
So what traits could you give your potential kids?
We are going to fill in Table 2:
If you are recessive, then write the recessive letter in the chart
If you are dominant, the flip a coin. heads = dominant, tails = recessive
Then COMBINE your genes and your mates genes for your baby
Predicting Offspring!
Draw you baby!!
Include 10 traits
Exit Checkpoint: A teacher needs to sign off on your paper before you leave

Homework: 4 Questions to finish the packet
What do you give to an offspring?
Your only notes for today:
Proportional relationship of two or more numbers
How to make them:
Determine if you are finding a phenotype or genotype ratio
Count the # of each kind and put colons between them
See if the ratio reduces like a fraction
Example: Geno ratio - 1 AA:2 Aa:1 aa or pheno ratio: 3 dominant: 1 recessive

What number do you see?
Drill: Tongue Curling
you have 5 minutes! Write on the 2-sided handout.
Take out your Human Inheritance Packet to turn in

Then QUIZ time!
Turn in your HW: Make a Pedigree!

Drill: 5 Min for Test reading
Jurassic Park Clip
Genetic Engineering:
the process of changing the DNA code of an organism. Ex: adding an glow gene to pigs so they glow in the dark.
Recombinant DNA:
DNA formed from 2 fragments of DNA stuck together. Ex. In Jurassic Park, Dino + Frog DNA = Dinosaurs
Creating an organism with the EXACT DNA as another
Gel Electrophoresis:
Sorting DNA chunks by size. Can use this to compare DNA samples
Restriction Enzymes:
Cut DNA into chunks for Gels
Any change in the DNA sequence. Ex: Deleting an 'T.'
Sickle Cell
SCA Review Practice
Finish for HW

Day 15 - SCA 2
11.A. Draw a Punnett square for this cross: A Blue-eyed person has kids with a brown-eyed person. Half their kids had blue and half had brown eyes. (B is dominant for brown eyes).

B. What’s the genotype for the brown-eyed person? _______
Final Jeopardy.
14. A boy is more likely to be colorblind IF his mom is a carrier OR his dad is colorblind. Prove your answer with 2 punnett squares
Drill: Turn in your Mutation HW
Take out your notes and green review packet
Day 16 - Unit Review
Video from students..
Jayda Travis
Princess Alejandra
Chris G Dejae
Kayla Malik
Henry Michael
De'jure Diqwon
Devonte Robbie
Gerald Crystal
Asia S. Josh
Tyler B.
Day 18 - Test Day
1. Make sure you have a board, marker and eraser.
2. Take out your Notes packet
3. Turn missing HW: Mutation and Make a Pedigree.
Last Day for Genetics works is Friday.
Your class has 43 missing assignments!
Genetics Jeopardy!

First people counted off get 3 pts for the right answer and 1 pt for others with the right answer
A cell had 42 chromosomes and did meiosis how many would a gamete have?
What process makes gametes with half the genetic info?
Draw a Punnett square for a cross of Gg x Gg
Use 2 words to describe Gg
What's the phenotype of the bottom right square?
(green is dominant to yellow)
DNA has 20% A, How much C does it have?
What's a gamete?
Sex Cell
like a egg or sperm
What introduces variation in gametes?
Crossing over
If a boy is has a sex-linked trait like color-blindness, which parent gave it to him
If a girl is colorblind who gave it to her?
His Mom
Her Mom AND Dad
What DNA codes for:
What is it called when DNA is modified to take in new genes
Recombinant DNA
Baby has blood type O, what blood types could the parents have?
A, B or O
Explain how a gene produces a trait
Gene made of DNA in the nucleus
mRNA carries the code to the ribosome
Protein made at the ribosome of amino acids
Quickly answer the Genetics Pre-Assessments. Try your best, I know haven't learned about it yet!
What happens if meiosis doesn't happen properly?
Karyotype activity: Sign out a computer and open: 3-Karyotype Web Activity and open the link in it
But it really looks more like this:
Go to munnbio.weebly.com


Drill: Turn in your HW. How Does DNA give your traits.
Gene Splicing
: Cutting a gene from one organism into another to transfer a trait (like the glowing gene into pigs)
Turn in your DNA: The Double Helix Coloring
Answer the weekly HSA questions then go to:

Sign in and click on the 'building DNA' gizmo
Work on Transcription and Transation
HW: DNA Homework
Learners will be able to model protein synthesis in order to explain how a genetic trait is determined by the code in a DNA molecule.
Learners will be able to model protein synthesis in order to explain how a genetic trait is determined by the code in a DNA molecule.
Learners will be able to model protein synthesis in order to explain how a genetic trait is determined by the code in a DNA molecule.

Haploid: one set of your genes (n) like sex cells
Diploid: two sets of your genes (2n) like body cells
B b


Genotype Ratio: 1BB:2Bb:1bb
Phenotype Ratio: 3Brown:1blue
Mini-Quiz on Basic Genetics next class! Covering:
Punnett Squares
Take out your Human Inheritance Packet to turn in

Then QUIZ time!
Go over Punnett Square Quiz!
On a Whiteboard!
Take out your HW: Review of C. Genetics!
Full transcript