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Y8 Ecology - KS3 Science

Habitats & Adaptation - Changing Suroundings - Competition & Population - Extinction & Conservation - Pyramids & Bioaccumulation - Decomposers - Animal Behaviour - Climate Change - Invertebrate Classification - Plant Classification
by

J Amuah-Fuster

on 8 July 2016

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Transcript of Y8 Ecology - KS3 Science

I feed at night when there are fewer predators.
I eat the worms and insects I find in leaf litter.
I hibernate in winter when there is not much to eat.

Where do I live?
Ecology
Habitats and Adaptation
Lesson Objectives
Describe different habitats and recognise differences

Identify adaptations that help animals and plants survive
My eyes face forward to let me judge distance accurately.
My tail can be used for balance.
I eat fruit.
I can grip with my hands feet and tail.

Where do I live?
I have waterproof feathers.
I can survive for months without food.
I store fat to prevent heat loss.

Where do I live?
I move around at night when it’s cooler.
I have a large body so I warm up and cool down slowly.
There’s very little water in my urine.

Where do I live?
Why are there different colours?
Why do some places look greener than others?
Can you explain why?
What’s wrong with this picture?
There’s nowhere to run where I live but I can run fast.
I eat grass.
I can go for days without water in the long dry summers.

Where do I live?
I can jump large distances.
My feet provide plenty of grip.
I have dense fur for insulation.
I have large lungs which help me to breathe easily where the air is thinner.

Where do I live?
Self Manager
CREATE A CREATURE
Use the template to design an animal

Things to think about…

Where does it live? (HABITAT)
What does it eat?
Is it a predator or prey?
What can it do/ not do?
How is it adapted to survive?
In your group, match the animal cards to the correct habitat and write a list on the worksheet.

What do you think are the three most important adaptations an animal might have to survive in each habitat?
Team Work
Reflective Learner
woodland – cool and wet
arctic – very cold and dry
rainforest – warm and wet
desert – hot and dry
savannah – warm and dry except in the rainy season
mountainside – cold and dry with snow in winter.
Different environments
Confident Individual
Predators
Prey
Eat ... or be eaten!!!
Where do I live?..
Where do I live?...
Where do I live?..
Where do I live?..
Where do I live?..
Where do I live?..
Where do I live?..
Homework
Do changes in a habitat depend on where you are in the world?
How do plants cope with changes in their habitat every year?
What changes might happen in a rock pool during the day?
All change
You will be able to…

Describe seasonal changes in a habitat
Explain the impact of changes on plants and animals
Identify how animals and plants cope with changes in a habitat
How do animals cope with changes in their habitat every year?
Migration
Water availability
Food availability
Temperature
Light
Food storage
Colour change
Hibernation
leaf drop (deciduous only)
water storage
fast growth
How do habitats change over a year?
Learning Objectives
How might the animals cope with these changes?
Does change in your habitat depend on where you live?
GRAPH PLOTTING
Plot a graph of either change in
temperature
,
light intensity
or
rainfall
for one year in two different habitats.
Limpets
Hides in shell
Dog Whelks
Hides in shell
Crabs
Hides within
cracks in rocks
Sea Polyps
Withdraws into self
These are rock pools.
How are they formed?
What animals would you expect to live here?
How might the habitat change during a day?
Competition!!
What will happen to the number of mice on the island if cats are brought over by humans?
Lesson Objectives
Name reasons for population changes
Explain how competition will affect organisms
Describe and explain the predator- prey relationship
What is happening to the number of predators?
What is happening to the number of prey?
IMMIGRATION
Less competition
More light
available
More space
available
Less predation
More

food
available
YEAR
What could have caused the population to rise?
Population (x1000)
Disease
Natural disaster
EMIGRATION
More competition
Less light
Less space available
Less food available
More predation
YEAR
What could have caused the population to fall?
Population
Competition
How and why numbers of animals can change
vs.
WHICH SQUIRREL WILL WIN?
Predator and prey
Can you link the two populations?
Write a few sentences describing what would happen and why?
DESERT
ARCTIC
RAINFOREST
MOUNTAINS
SAVANNAH
WOODLANDS
&
Population
Why do we need to conserve?
Nature reserves
Laws
Seed banks
Zoos & captive breeding
How can we conserve animals and plants?
Define EXTINCT and ENDANGERED
Name causes of extinction
Name methods of conservation
Human activity
Hunting
Loss of habitat
Disease
Predation and competition
Natural disaster
What causes extinction?
What do these animals have in common?

&
Extinction
Conservation
Learning Objectives
Economic
The world's economy depends on the development of sustainable resources. If they become extinct, we will not be able to use them ever again
Medicinal
Plants that could provide treatment for many illnesses could be endangered as we speak
Environmental
Ethical
Is it right that other organisms cease to exist because of our actions?
Will this have a cultural impact on future generations?
Different organisms are important to the balance of a habitats food chain.
If one becomes extinct, it can affect many other organisms
Biomass is the
mass
of living material

Scientists collect all members of a species and
dry them out
before weighing them!
Pyramids of biomass
What is good and bad about pyramids of number?
Pyramid of numbers
Why don’t polar bears eat penguins?
Independent Enquirer

Use the information about
feeding relationships to
construct food chains
Pyramids
Match a food chain and a pyramid of number
Define bioaccumulation and explain it’s impact on a food chain
Large amount of poison is found inside each top predator (there is only one of these!)
Small amount of poison is found inside each primary consumer (there are millions of these!)
Bioaccumulation
The amount of poison in each organism
increases up the food chain
bioaccumulation
&
Food webs
Lesson Objectives
How food chains can be dangerous places!
What type of habitat is this?
1. oak trees > aphids > blue tits > sparrow hawks

2. grass > rabbits > foxes > fleas

3. grass > insects > spiders > birds

4. oak trees > caterpillars > thrushes > hawks
Match the pyramid of numbers to the food chain…
Create your own pyramid of numbers for these food chains
Pyramids of Numbers do not always look like a pyramid.
They represent the numbers of organisms at each level of the food chain
Why are decomposers important?
How do decomposers fit into food chains?
In your group label the diagram of the microscope

Use the worksheet to make a microscope slide of the mould

Draw a picture of what you see in the circle on the worksheet

Team Work
LANGUAGE BANK
Bacteria Carbon
Decay Digest
Dead matter Energy Faeces Food chain
Mould/fungi Nutrients
Recycle Respiration
Carbon cycles
What would happen without decomposers?
What is happening?
Decomposers
Describe how decomposition occurs
Explain why decomposition is important
Use the carbon cycle to link dead and living stuff!
Learning Objectives
Behaviour
Animal
Self Manager
Animal behaviour
Imitation
Conditioning
Imprinting
Reflex
What are these?
Instinct
Animal behaviour: simple patterns

Describe simple behaviours
Explain how different behaviours improve the chance of survival
PREDICTION

THEORY

OBSERVATION

Analysis
Evaluation
What conditions do woodlice prefer?
There are lots of different types of habitat, with different light, temperature, dampness and humidity levels.
How would you find out which conditions woodlice prefer to live in?
Describe the places woodlice are commonly found
What factors are common to these places?
Decide on two variables (factors) you could investigate
Plan an investigation to help you decide which conditions woodlice preferred
What conditions do woodlice prefer?
What conditions do woodlice prefer?
Which habitat did woodlice prefer?
What results support your conclusion?
Can you use science to explain why?
What went well in the experiment?
How could the experimental method have been improved?
Dark & Dry
Light & Dry
Light & Damp
Dark & Damp
If you were to objectively assess your efforts what level would you give the work?

WHY?
These musk ox are hard to attack because they form a ring around their females and calves.
Unfortunately, that has made them easier to shoot.
Herd animals can share the job of looking out for predators and spend more time eating.

The largest have the same mass as a human.
Feeds on large herbivores.
Catches them using surprise attacks or long chases.
Travels further than other land animals to find prey.
Social
Wolf
Has a similar mass to a human.
Eats mainly small antelopes or hares.
Catches prey by rushing after them.
Fastest animals on land - up to 90 km/hour.
Solo
Cheetah
Mass about 4 times that of a human.
Preys on smaller herbivores like deer.
Catches prey by sneaking up on them.
Solo
Tiger
Mass about 1/3 that of a human.
Feeds on large herbivores like zebra and wildebeest
Stalks its prey and finishes with a fast chase.
Social
African hunting dog
Social
Lion
Mass about 3 times that of a human.
Eats large herbivores like gazelles and wildebeest.
Kills by swiping at the legs of frightened animals as they run towards it.
social

Which one are you?
Will you fend for yourself or share?
Will you keep the prize for yourself or have to share it with your team?
solitary

Solitary or social?

Think of 2 advantages and 2 disadvantages
What are the advantages and disadvantages of living a big group?
Solo
Has about 5 times the mass of a human.
Catches seals by waiting by their holes in the ice for a long time.
Can eat a whole seal’s blubber by itself.
Only about 2% of its attempts are successful.
Polar Bear
SOCIAL - hunts large herbivores like zebra
SOLO
hunts mice
Solo or social?
Social hunters work together to catch larger prey, but have to share everything they catch.
4.1a Solitary or social?

Models can never be exactly like real life.
What can we learn from this one about the advantages of solitary or social behaviour?
How could our model be improved?

social

OR

solitary

Try the wordsearch.
Find
keywords
used to describe or explain animal behaviours
Answers
Wordsearch Predators
Explain to students that they will be modeling the advantages of solitary and social behavior for herbivores.
Blue card - social
Yellow card - solitary.
Students can position and arrange themselves in the room however they like except against the walls, under benches
Everyone must finish their own word search.
They may not copy answers from each other.
They have to complete it without being tagged by the predators. If they do get tagged they need to turn their worksheet over. They can’t complete it.
The prey are not allowed to talk but can nudge each other when a predator approaches.
2 students will act as predators. They circle the room trying to tag as many prey as possible to stop them completing the word search.
The predators cannot tag anyone who is looking them in the eye.
CAUSES
Climate change
IMPACT
Use information from the videos to answer questions about the causation and impact of climate change
Is climate change a natural phenomenon, or is it caused by humans?
AFRICA
BANGLADESH
ARCTIC
CORAL REEF
INVERTEBRATES
Make a branching key to distinguish the red admiral from all other insects
His Characteristics
He does have a hat
He isn’t round
He is smiling
Mr Strong
His Characteristics
He doesn’t have a hat
He doesn’t have hair
He is wearing shoes
Mr Noisy
His Characteristics
He doesn’t have a hat
He doesn’t have hair
He isn’t wearing shoes
Mr Happy
His Characteristics
He does have a hat
He isn’t round
He isn’t smiling
Mr Grumpy
His Characteristics
He doesn’t have a hat
He has hair
His hair is neat and tidy
Mr Fussy
3) Is he wearing shoes?
Mr Men without hats and hair
3)Is his hair neat and tidy?
Mr Men without hats who have hair
3)Is he smiling?
Mr Men with hats who aren’t round
2)Does he have hair?
Mr Men without Hats
2) Is he round?
Mr Men with Hats
Meet the Mr Men
Is this an insect?
Groups within groups
Many insects have
tough covers over their wings
.
They are
beetles
.
Most invertebrates have
jointed legs
.
They are
arthropods
.
His Characteristics
He doesn’t have a hat
He has hair
His hair isn’t neat and tidy
Mr Clumsy
3)Is his hat red?
Mr Men with Hats who are round
What characteristic splits the group in half?
1) Does he have a hat?
KEY WORDS: Insects beetle arthropods ants
70% of al living things are .................. e.g a ..........................

Most invertebrates have jointed legs, they are................... e.g. A ....................

Most arthropods have ......... legs, they are ...... e.g a.............

Insects with a hard shell are called ............
Most arthropods have
six legs
.
They are
insects
.
Which group do these belong to?
What is the difference between a vertebrate and an invertebrate?
Invertebrates
What question would you put at each branch?

Start

2.

4.

5.

6.

7.

3.

1.

His Characteristics
He does have a hat
He is round
His hat isn’t red
Mr Impossible
Most animals are small
invertebrates
Reflective Learner
spider
Choose the odd one out
Reflective Learner
roundworm
beetle
snake
Choose the odd one out
Reflective Learner
fly
beetle
ladybird
Choose the odd one out
Creative Thinker
24

23

22

21

20

19

18

17

16

15

14

13

12

11

10

9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

Green
Plants
Create a mind map or a poster to answer the question:
Is climate change a natural phenomenon, or is it caused by humans?
Snake
Crab
Hoverfly
Which is a type of insect
Which is a type of arthropod
Which is a type of invertebrate
This is a beetle
Is this an insect?
Is this an insect?
His Characteristics
He does have a hat
He is round
His hat is red
Mr Forgetful
Task
In your group cut out and arrange the cards into evidence for and evidence against giving Madagascar money.

Try and link the ideas together. Decide whether you are
YES
or
NO
based on the evidence.

Write a sentence to explain your opinion.
Starter-
Make a list of all the things plants are useful for.
Green Plants
... many others are copies of chemicals in plants made by companies that make medicines.
1 in 4 UK medicines are extracted from
plants ...
Who benefits?
NO
YES
Who benefits?
Chemicals in the plant's sap cure some cancers.
The Madagascar periwinkle - Catharanthus roseus - originally
only grew on the island.

An American drug company makes $100 million per year
selling the chemicals.

Who benefits?
... but the forests where most plants grow are being cut down by locals for farming to earn money.
Native healers use 6000 different plants, sometimes foreign researchers visit to find out what plants are use to help treat the sick ...
Madagascar:
Island of plants?
Useful plants
... so we need to
identify them and
give them names.
... and 1 in 5
provide useful
products ...
There are about
300,000 species
of plant ...
Plants can also be classified according to whether they reproduce via
seeds or spores
, if they
produce flowers
, and the extent of their
vascular system (roots/stems/leaves)
Dicotyledons are plants that have wide leaves with branched veins.
Horse chestnut trees are dicotyledons.
Monocotyledons are plants that have leaves with parallel veins.
Maize plants are monocotyledons.
Plants can be classified according to the structure of the vascular tissue (‘veins’) in their leaves.
Classifying plants
... spending millions on new medicines doesn't mean they get through testing. If not, they cannot be sold.
Companies take the risks so they should get the profits.
Some people have illnesses with no cure.
They would prefer it were easier for companies to find and make new medicines.
Companies that make medicines take 15 years to test a new one – and it costs millions!!
If they didn't make money back in profits they’d go out of business....
Thousands of people have taken plants
from other countries. It was never illegal.
Classifying plants
Carl Linnaeus
Does it have parallel or branched veins on its leaves?
How could we classify plants?
ALGAE
Produces spores
Has no roots, stems, or leaves
MOSSES
Produces spores
Has
very little
roots, stems, or leaves
FERNS
Produces spores
Has well developed roots, stems, and leaves
CONIFERS
Produces seeds
Forms cones (not flowers) during reproduction
FLOWERING
Produces seeds
Forms flowers during reproduction
Dicotyledons
Branched veins
Monocotyledons
Parallel veins
It's your decision - should Madagascar get some of the profits?
This is a Madagascar Periwinkle
fly
beetle
What questions could you ask to get eliminate all other invertebrates except the seven-spotted ladybird?
Rabbit
population

increases
quickly due to
fewer predators
and
less competition
from other rabbits
Fox population decreases
, as there are
fewer rabbits
to eat.
Fox population increases
, as there are
plenty of rabbits
to eat.
There is
lots of competition
and
predator numbers are high
so the rabbit
population

decreases
rapidly.
Aloe polyphylla
Red Panda
Conservation in Action!!
Extinction! The Musical
Decomposers
recycle
materials so they can be
used again
by other organisms
Level 4
- What are decomposers?
Level 5
- Why are decomposers important?
Level 6
- What would happen without decomposers?
We Need Decomposers!!!
Produce a brief letter / poster campaigning for the conservation of decomposers.
Use words from the LANGUAGE BANK.
WHAT LEVEL ARE YOU?
Nutrients aren't recycled
Plants cannot grow
Animals die
Model Answer
Decomposers are organisms, like
bacteria
or
fungi
, that
digest

dead matter
and waste (
faeces
), using this material to produce
energy
through
respiration
.
Decomposers cause the
decay
of
dead matter
into simple materials, that can be
recycled
into
nutrients
for plants to grow and reproduce, e.g
carbon
.
Without decomposers, plants would not have the
nutrients
to grow.
This would affect the
food chain
, so that other organisms that depend on plants for food/shelter would not survive.
Full transcript