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THEORIES OF VALUES AND MORAL EDUCATION: THE WESTERN LEGACY

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Gineva Almaden

on 8 August 2016

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Transcript of THEORIES OF VALUES AND MORAL EDUCATION: THE WESTERN LEGACY

THEORIES OF VALUES AND MORAL EDUCATION: THE WESTERN LEGACY
Kohlberg
*a modern day authority on moral development theory
John Locke
One of the fundamental teaching in moral education rests on the active suppression of children's desire.

censure and punishment
- controls of appetites and desire (should be imposed and inculcated
)

praise and commendation
- rational behavior

Modern day educators acknowledged his contribution of laying foundations on the legitimization and expectations of moral education to transform children (Gay, 1964)




Immanuel Kant
Advocated that children reach rational behavior through adulthood by only means and that is through moral education.

CATEGORICAL IMPERATIVE
- one is encouraged to "act on conformity with that maxim which you can, at the same time, will to be the universal law. "

Kantian morality is connected with the process of character formation.

Advocated that mature development of reason wherein it voluntarily and joyously conforms to moral standard.

Max Scheler
(1874-1928)
Regarded the emotional sphere of man's interiority as the most essential sphere in his existence.
Theory of Value
A child first "feels" (immediately experiences) that soething is nice before he judges it to be sweet, delicious and that it is chocolate candy.
2 Ways of knowing a value
1) Real or Experiential Knowledge
2) Conceptual or Notional Knowledge

Herbert Spencer
stresses the responsibility of educational institutions to inform people of the
natural consequences of their actions
and to act in a way consistent with natural laws of morality and society.
denies the validity of moral indoctrination for such pedagogy

advised that values educators have to analyze their own motivations and must proceed with caution when setting up moral guidelines for others
- acknowledged
Socrates
on the value of teaching morality
virtue is knowledge and that knowledge is virtue
"Only the examined life is worth living"
- credits
Plato
for the formation of values and habits necessary for social leadership
- acknowledged
Aristotle
for the emphasis on te role of the environment and personal existence in a full human developmet
PERIOD OF ENLIGHTENMENT
PRE - TWENTIETH CENTURY
Leading moral philosopher in value-ethics
Applied Edmund Husserl's phenomenological method to man's emotional life and values.
Husserl's ''epoche'' or "bracketing"
(phenomenological reduction )
- to "get at"
- means arriving at the "eidos" or essence of things by bracketing or prescinding from the data of the senses, concepts, symbols and values.

John Dewey
MOST PROLIFIC CONTRIBUTOR TO THE FIELD OF EDUCATION

reinforces the concept that morality and education are both social in nature therefore any social reforms motivated by educational or moral
considerations must include actions both on the environment and its cultural forms and in the hearts of men and women who interact with it



Education consists of the transmission of past cultural experiences as well as the provision of linkages to the concrete experiences of the students and the wider community it exists in the present.
- Dewey, 1930'38
Influenced Kohlberg (1971), Raths, Harmin, and Simon (1968) on the Development of their theories.

Yet his ethical theory has been criticized. However, he Dewey argued for a more influential role to be exercised by teachers, society and cultures (Elias, 1989)
Ackowledged the significant role of school on the growth of those whom it seeks to influence.

Therefore, the school must be cognizant of the interactive possibilities with the wider society outside the formal walls, and of the concrete experiences and capacities of students for social intercourse.
Moral Education in schools cannot be treated as one more academic offering where one can become an expert (Dewey, 1925; 1938).
Chapter 6
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