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Transcript of Android OS
Ali Asghar Parsa
Islamic Azad University, Fars Science and Research Branch
A software platform and operating system for mobile devices
Based on the Linux kernel
Developed by Google and later the Open Handset Alliance (OHA)
The first publicly available smartphone running Android, the HTC Dream was released on October 22, 2008
What is Android
History of Android
Google acquired the startup company Android Inc. in 2005 to start the development of the Android Platform. The key players at Android Inc. included Andy Rubin, Rich Miner, Nick Sears, and Chris White.
Android's source code
Android's source code is released by Google under the Apache License; this permissive licensing allows the software to be freely modified and distributed by device manufacturers, wireless carriers and enthusiast developers. Most Android devices ship with a combination of open source and proprietary software.
Apps and Developers
As of July 2013, Android has the largest number of applications ("apps"), available for download in Google Play store which has had over 1 million apps published, and over 50 billion downloads. A developer survey conducted in April–May 2013 found that Android is the most used platform among developers: it is used by 71% of the mobile developers population.
The unveiling of the iPhone, a touchscreen-based phone by Apple, on January 9, 2007 had a disruptive effect on the development of Android. At the time, a prototype device codenamed "Sooner" had a closer resemblance to a BlackBerry phone, with no touchscreen, and a physical, QWERTY keyboard. Work immediately began on re-engineering the OS and its prototypes to combine traits of their own designs with an overall experience designed to compete with the iPhone
Open Handset Alliance
On November 5, 2007, the Open Handset Alliance, a consortium of technology companies including Google, device manufacturers such as HTC, Sony and Samsung, wireless carriers such as Sprint Nextel and T-Mobile, and chipset makers such as Qualcomm and Texas Instruments, unveiled itself, with a goal to develop open standards for mobile devices
First Android Phone
The first commercially available smartphone running Android was the HTC Dream, released on October 22, 2008.
On March 13, 2013
Android devices boot to the homescreen, the primary navigation and information point on the device
made up of app icons and widgets
whereas widgets display live, auto-updating content
Applications ("apps"), that extend the functionality of devices, are developed primarily in the Java programming language language using the Android software development kit (SDK)
The main hardware platform for Android is the 32-bit ARMv7 architecture. The Android-x86 project provides support for the x86 architecture, and Google TV uses a special x86 version of Android. In 2012, Intel processors began to appear on more mainstream Android platforms, such as phones. In 2013, Freescale announced support for Android on its i.MX processor, specifically the i.MX5X and i.MX6X series.
Android devices incorporate many optional hardware components, including still or video cameras, GPS, hardware orientation sensors, dedicated gaming controls
The green Android logo was designed for Google in 2007 by graphic designer Irina Blok. The design team was tasked with a project to create a universally identifiable icon with the specific inclusion of a robot in the final design
Google provides major updates, incremental in nature, to Android every six to nine months, which most devices are capable of receiving over the air. The latest major update is Android 4.4 KitKat.
As of January 2014, current Android versions consist of a kernel based on the Linux kernel's longterm 3.4 branch, varying in version numbers depending on the actual Android device. Android versions older than 4.0 Ice Cream Sandwich were based on the Linux kernel versions 2.6.x
The flash storage on Android devices is split into several partitions, such as /system for the operating system itself, and /data for user data and application installations
Android has an active community of developers and enthusiasts who use the Android Open Source Project (AOSP) source code to develop and distribute their own modified versions of the operating system. These community-developed releases often bring new features and updates to devices faster than through the official manufacturer/carrier channels, albeit without as extensive testing or quality assurance; provide continued support for older devices that no longer receive official updates
Security and privacy
Security and privacy
Android applications run in a sandbox, an isolated area of the system that does not have access to the rest of the system's resources, unless access permissions are explicitly granted by the user when the application is installed. Before installing an application, the Play Store displays all required permissions
The "App Ops" privacy and application permissions control system, used for internal development and testing by Google, was introduced in Google's Android 4.3 release for the Nexus devices. Initially hidden, the feature was discovered publicly; it allowed users to install a management application and approve or deny permission requests individually for each of the applications installed on a device
The source code for Android is available under free and open-source software licenses. Google publishes most of the code (including network and telephony stacks) under the Apache License version 2.0
These charts provide data about the relative number of devices accessing the Play Store recently and running a given version of the Android platform, as of January 11, 2014
Use outside of smartphones and tablets
The open and customizable nature of Android allows it to be used on other electronics aside from smartphones and tablets, including laptops and netbooks, smartbooks, smart TVs (Google TV) and cameras (E.g. Galaxy Camera).
outside of smartphones