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Transcript of Research
Protein Absorption/Release Using samples from the water absorption also measured the density through and change in size of the polymer plate to check degradation of the polymer. A second batch containing double of each polymer disk was synthesized and polymerized.
Each 1cm polymer disk was then tested for hardness in a Struess hardness tester.
The Struess Hardness tester selected 5 points 150 mm apart on the polymer disk and implemented 50 Newtons of force for a period of 30 seconds leaving diamond-size indentations.
Each indentations size determined the hardness of the polymer and was averaged. PEGDMA and PCL detached the fastest in 24hrs
Glycerol Dimethacrylate demonstrated to be the second most hydrophilic polymer
TEGDMA detached between 10 to 30 days.
The most hydrophobic polymer, UDMA, didn't detach even after a month of being soaked in distilled water
Mixtures of Glycerol Dimethacrylate were made with PEGDMA and showed no increased adhesion.
Need a medium adhesion for best results PEGDMA appeared to show the best water absorption and biodegradeability but did not show significant strength or adhesion.
Future research should look into mixing of this polymer with other monomers to get the ideal mixture.
Also due to the inconclusive data from the Protein absorption, more research needs to be done to look at the release of proteins from PEGDMA. Strues hardness tester used, ranging from weak (1) to hard (100)
GLYDMA demonstrated the most hardness of
HDDMA, TEGDMA, and UDMA on average had a Streus Diamond Hardness of approximately 30- 40
PEGDMA didn't show any readable hardness
Require Hardness to insert Implant with polymer. Implants are created to replace missing missing teeth and consist of two major parts.
Together they form an undecaying tooth form.
Under local anesthetics the gum tissue is removed and an implant is incorporated into the bone jaw
Osteointegration occurs which fuses the titanium screw with the jaw. Structure of Implant Basics of Polymers Polymers are made from monomers linked by chemical bonds. They are produced by polymerization, and occur either naturally or synthetically.
Examples of natural polymers are cellulose, shellac and amber. Biopolymers such as proteins and nucleic acids play crucial roles in biological processes.
Common synthetic polymers are Bakelite, neoprene, nylon, PVC (polyvinyl chloride), polystyrene, polyacrylonitrile and PVB (polyvinyl butyral). Implant screw Implant screw Implant screw Polymer w/Protein Bone Morphogenetic Protein Bone *Polyethylene-glycol- dimethacrylate (PEGDMA-600)*
Glycerol dimethacrylate (GLYDMA)
Tetraethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA)
1,6 Hexane dioldimethacrylate(HDDMA)
Urethane dimethacrylate (UDMA) Methods to produce monomer mixtures 10 ml glass containers obtained from a commercial source were used for storing monomer mixtures.
A molar ratio of monomer to methacrylic acid was used to create 50:50 and 80:20 molar ratios of each monomer with methacrylic acid.
Each of these monomer mixtures were covered in tin foil and stored in a dark environment unless used.
The room was set up with low-intensity yellow light to reduce unwanted polymerization. Adhesion Testing 1 cm diameter polymer disks glass slides with rubber tubing
Syringe needles were used to fill the monomer inside the rubber tubing until it was full with no air bubbles.
Glass Slides with monomers were analyzed with an IR spectrometer for the conversion rate and then Polymerized under UV Light.
Each polymerized plate was placed in ultrapure water
The weight of each polymer was recorded daily for water absorption.
After 4 weeks, each plate was taken out and dried after which its final mass was recorded. Titanium circular plates were sterilized with HNO3 for the duration of 5 minutes and dried.
Separate sterilized medical syringes were used with to inject selected monomers onto the titanium plates.
Two sets of 20mg of each monomer were placed on separate labeled titanium plates. Each plate was placed under a UV light and polymerized for 5 minutes.
Each polymerized plate was placed into separate centrifuge tubes and recorded daily for 4 weeks on the adhesion of the polymers. Protein Release/Absorption Another batch besides the 50:50 and 80:20 mixtures 0.1% by weight of ground up Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) was dispensed in each monomer
Two sets of polymer plates of each monomer was polymerized under EXFO UV light.
After polymerization the plates were placed ultrapure
After one week of water absorption and diffusion the polymer plates were taken out and the water solution was then tested for BSA protein using a Thermo Scientific Nanodrop 2000. Polymer Absorption PEGDMAs' water absorption increased 25% (fig1).
TEGDMA and Glycerol Dimethacrylate increased 10%
UDMA and HDDMA increased less then 5%
No significant change in water absorption between 50:50 and 80:20 (Fig1 and 2) Conclusion References Xiaohua Yu.; Haibo Qu.; David A.; Knecht E.;Mei Wei . Incorporation of bovine serum albumin into biomimetic coatings on titanium with high loading efficacy and its release behavior. Journal of Materials Science 2009,20,287-294
Umrethia M.; Kett V.; Andrews G.; Malcolm R.; Woolfson A. Selection of an analytical method for evaluating bovine serum albumin concentrations in pharmaceutical polymeric formulations. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2010 ,51,175-9
Jilie K.; Shaoning Y. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopic Analysis of Protein Secondary Structures. Acta Biochim Biophys Sin. 2007,39,549-59.
Gruian C.; Vanea E.; Simon S.; Simon V.FTIR and XPS studies of protein adsorption onto functionalized bioactive glass. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2012 1824,873-81
Scheler S.;Kitzan M.; Fahr A. Cellular uptake and degradation behaviour of biodegradable poly(ethylene glycol-graft-methyl methacrylate) nanoparticles crosslinked with dimethacryloyl hydroxylamine Int J Pharm. 2011, 403(1-2), 207-218
Research performed at Oregon Health and Science University Filming dental Implants ;[Online] posted September 2009 http://sterileeye.com/2009/09/08/filming-dental-implants/ Knight D;. Kohn J;.Ghosh J;.Valenzuela L;.Experimental and Theoretical Investigation of Water Uptake in Polymers. Center for Biomaterials. 2013